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Criminal (In)Justice
A Critical Introduction

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July 2019 | 416 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
“Criminal (In)Justice presents an overview of the criminal justice system from the angle of critical criminology instead of the traditional ‘this is who we are and this is what we do’ approach. This book makes students ask why the system is what it is and why it does what it does—and what are the results of those actions.”
-Milton C. Hill, Stephen F. Austin State University

Criminal (In)Justice: A Critical Introduction
takes an unflinching look at the American criminal justice system and the social forces that affect the implementation of justice. Author Aaron Fichtelberg uses a unique, critical perspective to introduce students to criminal justice and encourages them to look closer at the intersection of race, class, gender, and inequality in the criminal justice system. Covering each of the foundational areas of the criminal justice system—policing, courts, and corrections—this book takes an in-depth look at the influence of inequality, making it ideal for instructors who want students to critically assess and understand the American criminal justice system.
 
 
About the Author
 
Acknowledgments
 
To Professors Using This Book
Digital Resources

 
 
General Introduction
Why a “Critical” Introduction?

 
Themes of the Book

 
Trump

 
The Structure of This Book

 
A Comment About Terminology

 
 
SECTION I • CRIME
 
CHAPTER 1 • Defining, Classifying, and Measuring Crime
Defining Crime

 
Classifying Crime

 
Measuring Crime

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 2 • Criminal Law
The Rule of Law

 
The “Ingredients” (Elements) of Crime

 
Defenses

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Exercise: Actus Reus and Mens Reas

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 3 • Criminology
Religious Approaches to Crime

 
Classical Criminology

 
Biological Criminology

 
Psychological Criminology

 
Sociological Criminology

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 4 • Crime and Inequality
Economic Inequality and Crime

 
Racial Inequality and Crime

 
Gender Inequality and Crime

 
Intersectionality

 
Green Criminology, Queer Criminology, and Postmodernism

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
SECTION II • POLICING
The Police and American Government

 
Policing as a Verb Versus Police as a Noun

 
Active Versus Passive Policing

 
Formal Versus Informal Policing

 
Policing From a Critical Perspective

 
 
CHAPTER 5 • The History of Policing
The Rise of the London Metropolitan Police

 
Policing in America: The Early Years

 
The Era of Cronyism and Patronage

 
Professionalization

 
Federal Policing

 
Troubles of the 1960s and 1970s

 
The Drug War

 
Community Policing and Broken Windows

 
The Homeland Security Era

 
After Homeland Security?

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 6 • Modern Policing
The Organization of Policing

 
The Use of Force

 
The Constitution and the Police: The Fourth Amendment

 
Police Discretion

 
Civil Forfeiture

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 7 • Police Deviance
Police Deviance in Context

 
Overenthusiastic Policing

 
Corruption

 
The Causes of Police Deviance

 
Handling Police Deviance

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
SECTION III • COURTS AND TRIALS
 
CHAPTER 8 • Courts
Adversarial Justice

 
Plea Bargains and the Courtroom Workgroup

 
Other Courtroom Staff

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 9 • Criminal Trials
Pretrial

 
The Trial

 
Presenting Evidence

 
Objections

 
Other Motions at Trial

 
Jury Instructions, Deliberation, and Verdict

 
Appeals and Appellate Courts

 
Appellate Court Systems

 
The Supreme Court

 
The Politics of Appellate Jurisprudence

 
Theories of Constitutional Interpretation

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
SECTION IV • CORRECTIONS AND SPECIAL TOPICS
 
CHAPTER 10 • The History of Punishment
Premodern Forms of Punishment

 
The Rise of the Prison

 
Prison Labor and Indeterminate Sentencing

 
Rehabilitation

 
Mass Incarceration

 
The Prison-Industrial Complex

 
After Incarceration?

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 11 • Prison Life
Going to Prison

 
The Prison Population

 
Types of Prisons

 
Life in Prison, the Inmate Code

 
Women in Prison

 
Prisoner Rights

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 12 • Alternatives to Prison
The Collateral Effects of Incarceration

 
Community Corrections

 
Sex Offenders

 
Alternative Incarcerations

 
Restorative Justice

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 13 • The Death Penalty
The History of the Death Penalty

 
The Death Penalty and the Constitution

 
Other Developments in the Death Penalty

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
CHAPTER 14 • Juvenile Justice
The History of Childhood Crime

 
Juvenile Justice

 
Juvenile Corrections

 
Special Cases

 
Chapter Summary

 
Review/Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Instrutor Resource Site
edge.sagepub.com/fichtelberg

SAGE edge for instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students with:
  • a password-protected site for complete and protected access to all text-specific instructor resources;  
  • test banks that provide a diverse range of ready-to-use options that save you time. You can also easily edit any question and/or insert your own personalized questions;
  • section introduction quizzes that provide comprehensive questions based on the author's introductions to all five sections in the book; 
  • carefully selected video and multimedia links which enhance classroom-based exploration of key topics;
  • sample course syllabus for semester courses that provide suggested models for structuring your course;
  • editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for your course;
  • lecture notes that summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions; and
  • a course cartridge for easy LMS integration. 
Student Study Site
edge.sagepub.com/fichtelberg

SAGE edge for students enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:
  • an open-access site that makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime;
  • eFlashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts;
  • eQuizzes that allow students to practice and assess how much they’ve learned and where they need to focus their attention; and
  • carefully selected video and multimedia links which enhance classroom-based exploration of key topics. 

Criminal (In)Justice presents an overview of the criminal justice system from the angle of critical criminology instead of the traditional ‘this is who we are and this is what we do’ approach. This book makes students ask why the system is what it is and why it does what it does—and what are the results of those actions.”

Milton C. Hill
Stephen F. Austin State University

Criminal (In)Justice: A Critical Introduction is a critical, introductory discussion and analysis of the criminal justice system. The text situates components of the criminal justice system within their relevant historical, political, and social contexts. It is the ideal textbook for professors who want students to critically assess and understand the American criminal justice system.”

Jennifer M. Ortiz
Indiana University Southeast

“This is an excellent introductory criminal justice text that presents criminal justice material in an accessible format for freshman while addressing the complexities of race, gender, class, and inequality.”

Melinda Roberts
University of Southern Indiana

“A critical perspective on criminal justice that examines not only the basics we need our students to have but exposes them to it from a more sociological perspective, with ideas about inequality, discrimination, flaws in the CJ system, etc.”

Martha Sherman
The Pennsylvania State University

“This is a very readable, critical introduction to the criminal justice system. It’s unique in how it discusses inequalities, politics, and power relationships in the system as integral to how the system works.”

Monica Williams
Weber State University

Criminal (In)Justice uses a critical approach based on the sociological perspective to examine core topics in criminal justice on law enforcement, courts, and punishment as well as other important special topics and the role and intersectionality of race, gender, class, and inequality within the CJ system. It includes recent, real world examples to illustrate these issues and challenges students to think critically."

Scott M. Walfield
East Carolina University

"An excellent new text with a more robust and timely examination of criminology."

Dominic D. Yin
City College of San Francisco

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 4: Crime and Inequality

Chapter 6: Modern Policing


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