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Culturally Diverse Counseling
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Culturally Diverse Counseling
Theory and Practice

  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology
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December 2018 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice adopts a unique strengths-based approach in teaching students to focus on the positive attributes of individual clients and incorporate those strengths, along with other essential cultural considerations, into their diagnosis and treatment. With an emphasis on strengths as recommended in the 2017 multicultural guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA), this comprehensive text includes considerations for clinical practice with twelve groups, including older adults, immigrants and refugees, clients with disabilities, and multiracial clients. Each chapter includes practical guidelines for counselors, including opportunities for students to identify and curb their own implicit and explicit biases. A final chapter on social class, social justice, intersectionality, and privilege reminds readers of the various factors they must consider when working with clients of all backgrounds.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy: The Journey
Introduction: The Journey to Becoming a Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapist

 
The Profound Influence of Culture

 
Our Brains Are Culturally Connected

 
Affirming Each Person’s Importance

 
The Integration of Culturally Responsive and Strengths-Based Therapy

 
Brief History and Overview of the Multicultural Movement

 
Mastering the Multicultural Counseling Competencies

 
Ethical Issues and Multiculturalism

 
The Evidence-Based Movement in Multicultural Counseling

 
Beginning the Cultural Competency Journey

 
Levels of Counselor Competency Development

 
Clinical Skill Development: Cultural Awareness and Knowledge

 
Major Barriers to Culturally Competent Counseling

 
Neuroscience, the Brain, and the Invisible Neural Barrier of Ethnic/Racial Bias

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 2. Cultural Meaning Systems, Cultural Trust, and Cultural Humility
Introduction

 
Cultural Principles

 
The Iceberg Concept of Culture

 
Emic and Etic Perspectives on Culture

 
Culture and Neuroscience

 
Neuroscience and Cultural Differences

 
The Globalization of Culture

 
Culture and the Process of Identity Development: The Tripartite Model

 
The Ethnic Self: Ethnicity as a Schema

 
Research on the Positive Benefits of a Cultural Identity

 
Does One Have to Be of the Same Cultural/Ethnic/Racial Background to Counsel Clients Effectively?

 
Assimilation, Marginalization, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress

 
Culturally Responsive Counseling: Reaching Across Barriers

 
Understanding Clients’ Cultural Stories

 
Culturally Competent Clinical Knowledge

 
Culturally Responsive Knowledge Skills for the Initial Interview

 
Cultural Trust: A Critical Issue in Culturally Diverse Counseling

 
Cultural Empathy and Cultural Competence

 
Levels of Culturally Competent Clinical Responding

 
The Culturally Competent Skill of Counselor Cultural Humility

 
Toward a Model for Evaluating Culturally Competent Clinical Skill Development of Counselors

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 3. Neuroscience, Multiple Cultural Identities, and Cultural Strengths
Introduction

 
Neuroscience, CACREP Standards, and Major Counseling Associations

 
Foundational Concepts in Neuroscience for Counselors

 
The Brain

 
Mapping the Cultural Architecture of the Brain

 
Cultural Identity Formation and Neuroscience

 
Brain Regions and Cultural Identity

 
Some Important Findings in Cultural Neuroscience

 
Cultural Identity and the Cultural Formulation Interview for the DSM-5

 
The Negativity Bias of the Brain: Findings in Neuroscience

 
Is the Brain Hardwired to See the Glass Half Empty or Half Full?

 
Mental Health From a Neuroscientific Perspective

 
Neuroimaging Techniques and the Brain

 
Neuroscience: Psychotherapy Changes Your Brain

 
The Therapeutic Relationship From a Neuroscientific Perspective

 
Neuroscience and the Culturally Responsive Counselor

 
Mirror Neurons and Counselors

 
What Happens When a Counselor Focuses on a Client’s Negative Life Events?

 
Neuroscience and Multiple Cultural Identities

 
What Is a Multicultural Identity?

 
The Need for Clinicians to Adopt a Multicultural Identity

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 4. Strengths-Based Development, Culture, and Clinical Practice
Introduction

 
Culture, the Brain, and Strengths Development

 
The Neurobiology of Human Strengths Development

 
Strengths and the Brain’s Pruning Process

 
Relational Components of Strengths Development

 
Attachment Theory and Strengths Development

 
Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment: The Foundation for Understanding Individual Strengths Development

 
Significance of Attachment Relationships and Strengths Development

 
Strengths Development and the Importance of a Trusted Relationship

 
Strengths Development and Attention

 
Attachment Patterns Across Cultures

 
Significance of Cultural Attachment, Migration, and Acculturation

 
Strengths Development, the Narrative Process, and the Mind

 
Strengths as Dialogic Conversations With the Self

 
Western and Eastern Views on Human Strengths: The Chinese Perspective

 
How Do I Make Culturally Responsive Counseling Strengths-Based?

 
The Philosophy of Strengths-Based Therapy

 
Cultural Mindsets

 
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Practice

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 5. The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and Culturally Responsive Counseling
Introduction

 
The Revised Strengths-Based Therapy Model

 
Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 6 Culturally Responsive Assessment and the Cultural Formulation Interview
Introduction

 
General Assessment Principles in Counseling and Psychotherapy

 
Clinical Issues in Conducting a Qualitative, Culturally Responsive Assessment

 
The DSM-5 and the Cultural Formulation Interview

 
The Four Domains of the Cultural Formulation Interview

 
Cultural Genogram: An Assessment Tool

 
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model’s Assessment Process

 
Creating a Strengths Genogram

 
Assess the Client’s Potential for Self-Harm and Risk to Others

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 7. Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning
Introduction

 
Case Conceptualization: Some General Elements

 
Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization

 
Case Conceptualization and the Cultural Formulation Interview

 
Strengths-Based Case Conceptualization

 
Strengths-Based Treatment Plans

 
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 8. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for African Americans
Introduction

 
The African American Population: Some Basic Demographics

 
Historical and Psychosocial Issues for Blacks: Oppression, Discrimination, and the Legacy of Slavery

 
African Americans and Cultural Values

 
Cultural Strengths of African Americans

 
NTU: An Afrocentric Model for Counseling African Americans

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 9. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Introduction

 
Defining Group Membership

 
Demographic and Population Statistics

 
Who Is an “Authentic” or “Real Indian”?

 
Socioeconomic Status

 
Theory of Historical Trauma Among American Indians

 
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions

 
Worldview

 
Family Structure: The Tribe as Family

 
Cultural Identity

 
Cultural Values

 
Cultural Strengths

 
Healing: The Circle and Medicine Wheel in Indian Life

 
Counseling Applications of the Circle and Medicine Wheel

 
Mental Health Challenges

 
Counseling Approaches for American Indians and Alaska Natives

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 10. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders
Introduction

 
Demographic and Population Statistics

 
Historical Changes in the Asian American Profile

 
Socioeconomic Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: 2013

 
Asian Americans as the “Model Ethnic Minority”: Myth or Reality?

 
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions

 
Cultural Issues of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

 
Asian American and Pacific Islander Communication: High-Context Culture

 
Cultural Identity of Asian Americans: No One Identity Model for All

 
Cultural Strengths and Contributions of Asian Americans

 
Acculturation and Cultural Issues Affecting Mental Health

 
Cultural Factors in Counseling Asian Americans

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 11. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Hispanic and Latino/a Americans
Introduction

 
Hispanic/Latino American Cultural Values

 
Acculturation Conflicts for Hispanic/Latino Americans

 
Cultural Identity of Hispanics and Latinos

 
Hispanic/Latino Cultural Strengths

 
Hispanic/Latino Physical and Mental Health Issues

 
Counseling Approaches for Working With Hispanic/Latino Clients

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 12. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Arab and Muslim Americans
Introduction

 
Microaggressions Against Arab and Muslim Americans

 
Cultural Values and Worldview of Arabs and Muslims

 
Acculturation: Patterns and Conflicts

 
Mental Health Issues for Arab and Muslim Americans

 
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans

 
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans: Some Recommendations

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 13. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for White Americans of European Ancestry
Introduction

 
Socioeconomic Status of White Americans

 
Ethnic Group Saliency for White Americans

 
The White American Worldview

 
Models of White Racial Identity Development

 
The Hardiman White Racial Identity Model

 
The Helms Model of White Identity Development

 
Counseling White Americans of European Ancestry

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 14. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Women
Introduction

 
Demographics of American Women

 
Socioeconomic Status of U.S. Women

 
Microaggressions Against Women and Gender Inequality

 
The Mental Health Issues of Women

 
Counseling Approaches for Women: Feminist Therapy

 
Dissatisfaction With Existing Psychological Theories

 
Dissatisfaction With Diagnostic Categories and Mother Blaming

 
Traditional Theories Versus Feminist Therapies: Six Characteristics

 
Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy

 
Gender Role Stereotyping Across Cultures

 
The Social Construction of Gender

 
Gender and Power Differentials

 
Feminist Therapy Approaches

 
Goals of Feminist Therapy

 
The Role of Men in Feminist Therapy

 
Techniques of Feminist Therapy

 
Feminist Therapy and Multicultural Therapy

 
Integration of Feminist Therapy With Other Approaches

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 15. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for LGBTQ Individuals
Introduction

 
Demographic and LGBTQ Population Data

 
Socioeconomic Status

 
Discrimination and the Gay Rights Movement

 
LGBTQ Identity Development

 
Transgender Identity Development

 
Coming Out and Gender Identity Development for Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals

 
Coming Out for People of Color: A “Tricultural Experience”

 
LGBTQ Youth and Schools

 
LGBTQ Families: Some Facts

 
Mental Health Issues and the LGBTQ Community

 
Top 10 Physical and Mental Health Concerns of LGBTQ College Students

 
Strengths of LGBTQ Populations

 
Counseling Members of the LGBTQ Community

 
The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy

 
Role of the Therapist in Working With LGBTQ Clients

 
Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 16. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Individuals With Disabilities
Introduction

 
Definition of Disability and the Americans With Disabilities Act

 
Demographics of People With Disabilities

 
Socioeconomic Status

 
Major Categories of Disabilities

 
Models of Disability

 
Disability as a Multicultural Issue

 
Privilege and People With Disabilities

 
Microaggressions Toward People With Disabilities

 
Spread: A Form of Ableism

 
Interaction Strain and People With Disabilities

 
Identity Development and People With Disabilities

 
Experiencing a Disability Identity After Trauma

 
Strengths of People With Disabilities

 
Counseling Approaches for Individuals With Disabilities

 
People With Disabilities and Risk for Abuse

 
Empowerment

 
Family Counseling and People With Disabilities

 
Disability Affirmative Therapy and Disability Orientation

 
Olkin’s Model of Disability and Counseling Approach

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 17. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults
Introduction

 
Demographics for Older Adults

 
Western and Eastern Cultural Views on Aging

 
Ageism

 
Microaggressions and the Older Adult

 
Mental Health Issues of the Older Adult

 
Depression and Older Adults

 
Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Cognitive Impairments

 
Substance Abuse and Older Adults

 
Sexuality and the Older Adult

 
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and the Older Adult

 
Phases of Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults

 
Additional Strengths Assessment Issues

 
A Final Note on Clinical Intervention and Treatment Issues

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 18. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Immigrants and Refugees
Introduction

 
Refugee, Asylee, and Immigrant: Some Working Definitions

 
Microaggressions, Hate Crimes, and Discrimination Against Immigrants and Refugees

 
Mental Health Issues of Immigrants and Refugees

 
Mental Health Issues and Pre- and Postmigration

 
Competency Assessment for Practitioners Working With Refugees and Immigrants

 
Counseling and Therapy Models for Working With Refugees With PTSD

 
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 19. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Multiracial People
Introduction

 
Models of Multiethnic/Multiracial Identity Development

 
Competencies for Counseling Multiracial Individuals

 
Psychotherapy With Multiethnic/Multiracial People

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Chapter 20. Social Class, Social Justice, Intersectionality, and Privilege
Introduction

 
Social Class and Culturally Responsive Counseling

 
The Neuroscience of Poverty and Social Class

 
Neuroscience, Social Class, and Empathy

 
The Social Justice Movement in Counseling

 
Intersectionality, Social Class, and Social Justice

 
Internalized Oppression: Social Class and Ethnicity/Race

 
Privilege, Race, and Social Class

 
Summary of Multidimensional Privileges in a Society

 
Social Class and Cultural Strengths: Antidote for Internalized Oppression and Stereotype Threat

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
References and Suggested Reading

 
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

Visit study.sagepub.com/jonessmithcdc to access the password-protected instructor resources that accompany this text.

  • A test bank provides a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation.

“Understanding cultural perspectives of our clients is a continuous challenge. Elsie Jones-Smith succinctly presents a multicultural strength-based model to ease the unique challenges in working with diverse clients. Empower yourself to empower your clients.”

Dr. Sorie Koroma
University of Massachusetts

“A transformational book regarding multicultural therapy.”

Tomasina L. Cook
Niagara University

I wanted a book that used a social justice model and highlighted resilience. This book delivered on that.

Dr Rosenna Bakari
Counseling & Human Services, University Of Colorado-Colorado Springs
April 21, 2019

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1: Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy


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ISBN: 9781483388267
£84.00

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