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American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias®

American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias®

eISSN: 19382731 | ISSN: 15333175 | Current volume: 38 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Yearly
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias® (AJADD) accepts original papers from professionals and researchers on the frontlines of Alzheimer's care, dementia, and clinical depression, including those who deal with Alzheimer's patients every day. AJADD is a peer-reviewed, open access journal. In every issue, you will find down-to-earth clinical information on:

  • The latest research on Alzheimer's disease from the molecular underpinnings of the disease to its associated behaviors.
  • Practical medical, psychiatric, and nursing issues such as assessment and management of problem behaviors, communication difficulties, dealing with delusions and other psychotic features, apathy, effects of physical activity, integrated treatment approaches, new and changing pharmacotherapies, orientation behaviors, and hospice use. AJADD also includes information on management of concurrent medical issues in the patient with dementia.
  • New and forthcoming diagnostic tools such as computerized testing for mild cognitive impairment and other aspects of cognitive testing, as well as high technology resources for sophisticated disease characterization. AJADD also provides information on the clinical features and management of non-Alzheimer's dementias.
  • Psychosocial issues such as dealing with staff caregivers' distress, improving caregivers' communication skills, helping patients and families to deal with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or another dementia, and patients' perceptions and preferences.
  • Practice-oriented clinical research from the frontiers of neurology and genetics, including sleep-wake states, targeting glutamate excitotoxicity, cholesterol and apolipoprotein E, and other aspects of the underlying biology that causes the symptoms of dementia. AJADD also reports on the latest clinical trials that focus on medications for the symptoms of dementia and the disease process.
  • Administrative and legal issues such as coding, consumer evaluation of adult day-care services, cost-effectiveness of special care units, dangerous wandering, end-stage dementia, informed consent, Medicare coverage for cognitively impaired residents, supervision of high-risk fall dementia patients, and vulnerable populations and avoidable hospitalizations.

By 2025, it is estimated that there will be about 34 million people in the world with some form of Alzheimer's disease or other dementia. To stay ahead of the latest research, clinical practices and procedures, and administrative issues, subscribe to American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias® today!

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC), currently 2650 USD is payable*. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence.

*The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.

This journal changed its publication mode from subscription to open access in January 2020. Content from 1999-2019 is hosted free-access. Please see this page for information on reuse rights of archival material. 

American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias® (AJADD) offers an open access, multi-disciplinary peer-reviewed, international forum for researchers, physicians, nurses, psychiatrists, nursing home and assisted living administrators, and other healthcare professionals who deal with patients with dementias every day. AJADD publishes original research, case studies and media reviews on all aspects of Alzheimer's and dementia, including:

  • Basic Research
  • Behavior Management
  • Caregiving
  • Communication strategies
  • Evaluation
  • Heredity
  • Long-term care
  • Memory loss
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Psychosocial Issues
  • Recreation and activity
  • Therapy
  • Restraint-free care
  • Special care units
  • Symptom management
Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, PhD The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Editorial Board Members
Wassim Elyaman, PhD Columbia University Irving Medical Center, USA
Barry B. Zeltzer, PhD BallouLife Communities, USA
Malka Cohen-Armon, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Norman Abeles, PhD Michigan State University, USA
Carmela Abraham, Phd Boston University - School of Medicine, USA
Sally Albrecht, MA President, Activities and Interventions in Dementia, Inc. (AID)
Donna L. Algase, PhD, RN, FAAN, FGSA University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Gjumrakch Aliev, MD, PhD University of Atlanta, USA
Francois Boller, MD, PhD George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, USA
Amy R Borenstein, PhD, MPH University of California-San Diego, USA
Heiko Braak, MD Center for Biomedical Research, University of Ulm , Germany
John CS Breitner, MD. MPH University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Maria T Caserta, PhD, MD University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, USA
Neelima B Chauhan, PhD University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA
Yuzhi Chen, PhD University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Bruce A Citron, PhD VA New Jersey Healthcare System, USA
John Cotter, PhD Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
José R. Criado, PhD Scripps Research Institute, USA
Jeffrey L. Cummings, MD Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Neal E. Cutler, PhD American Institute of Financial Gerontology, USA
John F Disterhoft, MD Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, USA
Tomasz Dziedzic, PhD, MD Jagiellonian University Medical College, Poland
Piet Eikelenboom, MD Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands
Carl Eisdorfer, PhD, MD Duke University School of Medicine, USA
Carol J Farran, DNSc, RN, FAAN Rush University, College of Nursing, USA
Lindsey A Farrer, PhD Boston University School of Medicine, USA
F. Richard Ferraro, PhD University of North Dakota, USA
Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, PhD CUNY - City University of New York, USA
Alan Fine, PhD Dalhousie University, Canada
Pierluigi Gambetti, MD Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, USA
Cheng-Xin Gong, MD, MS CUNY - City University of New York, USA
Iliana Gozes, PhD Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Steven M Greenberg, MD, PhD Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Xianlin Han, PhD UT Health San Antonio, USA
Ying Han, MD, PhD Center of Alzheimer’s Disease, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China
Victor A Henderson, MD, MS Stanford University, USA
Kenneth W Hepburn, PhD Emory University, USA
Yuen-Shan Ho, PhD The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Bradley T Hyman, MD, PhD Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Shannon E Jarrott, PhD The Ohio State University, College of Social Work, USA
Henry Ka-Fung Mak, PhD The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Joanne Koenig-Coste, M.Ed Alzheimer Consultant, USA
Daniel Kuhn, MSW University of Michigan School of Social Work, USA
Shupeng Li, PhD Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, China
Mary Lucero Geriatric Resources, Inc.
Colin L Masters, MD Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Australia
Richard Mayeux, MD, MSc Columbia University, USA
Patrizia Mecocci, MD, PhD University of Perugia, Italy
Rita Moretti, MD University of Trieste, Italy
Paul Raia, PhD Alzheimer’s Association MA/NH Chapter, USA
Stephen A Rappaport, MD Indiana University Health, USA
Barry Reisberg, MD Aging and Dementia Research Center, New York, New York, USA
Gerard D Schellenberg, PhD Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Dennis J Selkoe, MD Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA
Rebecca Sleeper, PharmD Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, USA
Joan Swearer, MD University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA
Ian Trounce, PhD Centre for Eye Research Australia, Australia
Magda Tsolaki, MD Papanikolaou General Hospital of Thessalonikii, Greece
Christine Van Broeckhoven, MD University of Antwerpen, Belgium
Jian-Zhi Wang, Phd Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Bengt Winblad, MD, PhD Huddinge Hospital, Sweden
Xifei Yang, PhD Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China
Ying Yang, PhD Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Jeremy Yorgason, PhD Brigham Young University, USA
Steve H Zarit, PhD The Pennsylvania State University, USA
Zaijun Zhang, PhD Jinan University College of Pharmacy, China
Guo-Ging Zheng, MD, PhD The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China
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    Before you submit your research, please make sure your paper meets the below criteria:


    1. Your paper is an original work and has not been published or currently under review with another journal.

    2. A cover letter is included with the following criteria:

    1. Letters must be on an institutional letter head
    2. Letters should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Chang
    3. Letters must be signed by corresponding author
    4. Authors must point out the key message if the manuscript and what is the uniqueness of the study
    5. A note stating agreement of all authors of submission

    3. Only authors that have contributed to the work are added. Please see ICMJE's guidelines "Defining Roles of Authors and Contributors". 

    4. Your work meets all Research Ethics and Reporting Standards. 

    5. Your figures are of acceptable quality and uploaded as separate files. Line art should be 900-1200 DPI, images 300 DPI. Images should be minimally processed to uphold their original integrity. More figure information here.  

    6. Your references are formatted correctly and numbered as they appear in the text. Please visit here for reference style.  

    7. Please add at least three recommended reviewers with the following criteria:

    1. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective  assessment of the manuscript
    2. The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    3. The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    4. Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted
    5. Reviewer should not be from the same country as the authors
    6. No two reviewers should be from the same university

    8. Authors must have an understanding and agreement to pay any applicable article processing charges (APCs).

    Please note: The APC for AJA is $2650 USD.

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC), currently $2,650 USD (plus tax where applicable), is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

    9. Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims & scope of the journal will be reviewed.

    Submissions that don't adhere to these instructions will be returned prior to peer review. 

    Once your manuscript meets all criteria above and below, you can submit it through our online submission system here.


    This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

    As part of the submission process, you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.


    1. Open Access
    2. Article Processing Charge (APC)
    3. What Do We Publish?
         3.1 Aims & Scope
         3.2 Article Types
         3.3 Writing Your paper
                3.3.1 Making Your Article Discoverable
    4. Editorial Policies
         4.1 Peer Review Policy
         4.2 Authorship
         4.3 Acknowledgements
              4.3.1 Writing Assistance
         4.4 Funding
         4.5 Declaration of Conflicting Interests
         4.6 Research Ethics and Patient Consent
         4.7 Clinical Trials
         4.8 Reporting Guidelines
    5. Publishing Policies
         5.1 Publication Ethics
               5.1.1 Plagiarism
               5.1.2 Prior Publication
         5.2 Contributor’s Publishing Agreement    
    6. Preparing Your Manuscript
         6.1 Word Processing Formats
         6.2 Manuscript Structure
               6.2.1 Title Page (on a separate page)
               6.2.2 Abstract, Keywords and Abbreviations
               6.2.3 Significance Statement and Introduction
               6.2.4 Materials and Methods
               6.2.5 Results and Statistical Analyses Reporting
               6.2.6 Discussion
               6.2.7 Conflict of Interests Statement
               6.2.8 References
               6.2.9 Legends
               6.2.10 Illustrations, Figures, Tables and Other Graphics
         6.3 Supplemental Material
         6.4 English Language Editing Services
    7. Submitting Your Manuscript
         7.1 How to Submit Your Manuscript
         7.2 Information Required for Completing Your Submission
         7.3 ORCID
         7.4 Permissions
    8. On Acceptance and Publication
         8.1 Sage Production
         8.2 Online Publication
         8.3 Promoting Your Article
    9. Further Information


    1. Open Access

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

    For general information on Open Access at Sage please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

    2. Article Processing Charge (APC)

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC), currently 2650 USD (plus tax where applicable), is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

    3. What Do We Publish?

    3.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    3.2 Article Types

    All articles will be considered for publication; however, preferential consideration will be given to reports of significant interest to the broad Alzheimer's and dementia community. We also accept papers with negative results. Main article types are as follows: Original Research, Brief Reports, Letters to the Editor, Methods, Review, Mini-Reviews, Editorials, Case Reports and Commentaries. Commentaries, Mini- and full-length reviews are typically invited by the Editor-in-Chief, however, unsolicited work will be considered. Commentaries are invite-only. 

    • Original Research
      Research reports are full-length original articles that should present a major scientific breakthrough. We also encourage the submission of negative or null findings of well-conducted studies. We recognize that these can be a useful resource for the research community and can play an important role in scientific advancement and addressing the issue of publication bias.  Please note that qualitative research or studies are not accepted.

    • Brief Reports
      Brief reports are short, timely articles aimed at providing important, breakthrough data that are not embedded within a complex story. While there are no specific length limitations for Brief Reports, authors are encouraged to keep them concise.
    • Letters to the Editor
      These manuscripts can consist of:

      1. A critical analysis or an agreement on a hypothesis or published paper.
      2. A description of a hypothesis or medical problem (not necessarily published).

    A letter to the Editor is a brief communication that either addresses the contents of a published article, or is a correspondence unrelated to a specific article. Its purpose is to make corrections, provide alternative viewpoints, or offer counter-arguments. Avoid logical fallacies and ad hominem attacks. Letters to the Editor must be written in a professional tone and include references to support all claims if appropriate. A letter to the Editor unrelated to a specific article should not exceed 500 words or have more than 3 references. A letter to the Editor pertaining to a recently published article or to be published concurrently with an article within the journal should not exceed 800 words or have more than 5 references. If an abstract is included, it will automatically be made the first paragraph. Letters should not include figures or research material. Letters to the editor are not charged an APC.

    • Validation Studies
      Validation or Replication studies can be submitted to the journal. These should be carried out to validate that a scientific finding is accurate, reliable and reproducible. These may be written in the style of a Brief Report or a Research Paper with a brief introduction. 
    • Reviews
      Reviews are intended for a broad audience and therefore should be written with a view to informing readers who are not specialized in that particular field. Please avoid excessive jargon and technical detail. Reviews should capture the broad developments and implications of recent work. They should include an abstract of 150 words and should cite no more than 150 references.
    • Mini-Reviews
      Mini-reviews are brief biographical profiles, historical perspectives, or summaries of developments in fast-moving areas. They must be based on published articles; they may address any subject within the scope of the American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias. They should not exceed 3,500 words (excluding the abstract, references and figure and table legends), 4 figures plus tables combined and approximately 40 references.
    • Perspectives
      Perspective articles provide a medium for authors to discuss models and ideas from a personal viewpoint. They can be speculative and forward-looking. These papers can be biased with the intent to stimulate discussion and new experimental approaches.

      Perspectives follow the same formatting guidelines as Reviews. 

    • Commentaries are by invitation only. These are short summaries of significant recent and forthcoming papers, published elsewhere, that provide additional insights, new interpretations or speculation on the relevant topic. These manuscripts may include models, which due to space limitations were not included or discussed in the original paper. Commentary material may be peer reviewed at the Editor's discretion. 
    • Methods and Protocols
      Methods and protocols describe a powerful experiment, a method or important technical updates relevant to the field. The Protocols section only features proven protocols, thus the authors of the protocol must have previously used their method to produce the work reported in a peer-reviewed primary journal.

    Generally, Protocols are commissioned by the editorial team, but pre-submission inquiries are also welcome. Commissioned Protocols will undergo peer review, thus commissioning does not guarantee publication.

    Please include the following:

    1. Title (should describe the method and, if appropriate, its application).
    2. Abstract (~150 words). Should briefly describe the protocol, its applications and the results that can be expected. If possible, include a final sentence indicating how long the whole protocol takes.
    3. Introduction. Should enable readers to make a decision as to the suitability of the protocol to their experimental problem. You should introduce the technique under discussion and include references to key papers where the protocol has been used previously. This section should include information on (a) the development of the protocol, (b) potential applications of the method, (c) comparison with other methods and (d) experimental design with procedure-specific information.
    4. Materials. Please use the subheadings (a) Reagents, (b) Equipment, (c) Reagent Setup and (d) Equipment Setup to structure this section. Subheadings (c) and (d) are optional. 
      a) Reagents. List of essential reagents, including information about the suppliers. If you have found that deviations from a particular reagent, or its source, have adverse effects on the outcome of the protocol this should be made clear. Toxic or harmful agents should be highlighted, followed by a brief explanation of the hazard and the precautions that should be taken when handling the agent. 
      b) Equipment. List essential equipment, highlighting any specialist equipment required. 
      c) Reagent Setup. This section is appropriate for including details on required sample specifications (i.e. minimum protein quantity and allowed buffer components), preparation of complicated buffers, the pre-treatment of solvents and/or reagents to make sure they are moisture-free and/or air-free. Please indicate whether a buffer/solution should be made up fresh or can be stored and, if so, under which conditions and for how long. In addition, please state whether % solutions are wt/vol or vol/vol. 
      d) Equipment Setup. This section should contain details on the setup of equipment (i.e. HPLC separation methods).
    5. Procedure. This step-by-step methodology is the major part of the protocol and must be a numbered list. If the protocol naturally breaks into separate stages, then include subheadings and resume the numbered list. State how long the section will take to complete. Include diagrams and/or photographs of equipment set-up, where appropriate. If the protocol is complicated, you should consider including a flow diagram to demonstrate how the stages fit together. Please include PROBLEM callouts after steps where problems are encountered, that are subsequently mentioned in the Problem Handling section.
    6. Timing. If possible, please include a timeline indicating the approximate time a step, or set of steps, will take. Provide this information as a summary at the end of the procedure.
    7. Problem Handling (Problem Tracing, Fault Finding, Fault Diagnosis). Include information on how to trace and correct the most likely problems users will encounter with the protocol. Please provide this information in the form of a table with the columns ‘Step’, ‘problem’, ‘possible reason’, ‘solution’. The step number should be given where the problem is first observed (not where it occurred). The appropriate steps should also be flagged in the main text by the heading ‘Problem’. If problem handling text refers to only one or two steps, it can also be formatted as normal text with subheadings referring to the steps or sections that the information pertains to.
    8. Anticipated Results. Include information about the likely outcome for users, for example, likely yield of protein, typical microscopy images, etc. This is a good place to include directions on how to interpret and analyze the raw data, including equations if necessary.

    Mini- and full-length reviews are typically invited by the Editor-in-Chief, however, unsolicited work will be considered.

    3.3 Writing Your Paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    3.3.1 Making Your Article Discoverable
    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    4. Editorial Policies

    4.1 Peer Review Policy

    The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias utilizes a single-anonymize peer review process in which the reviewer’s name and information is withheld from the author. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Executive Editor who then makes the final decision.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for the American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias can opt-in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    4.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all of those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. 
    When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing Assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgments should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    4.4 Funding

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    4.5 Declaration of Conflicting Interests                    

    It is the policy of American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgments and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    4.6 Research Ethics and Patient Consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    4.7 Clinical Trials

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    4.8 Reporting Guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    5. Publishing Policies

    5.1 Publication Ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgment, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior Publication

    If any material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor’s Publishing Agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit Sage's OA licenses page

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

    6. Preparing Your Manuscript

    6.1 Word Processing Formats

    Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS and (La)TeX. 

    The text should have a minimum of 3cm for left and right-hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. AJA follows IUPAC-IUB nomenclature.  Please add line and page numbers to your document.

    Our tailored Word template and guidelines will help you format and structure your article, with useful general advice and Word tips.

    We welcome submissions of (La)TeX files. Please download the Sage (La)Tex Template, which contains comprehensive guidelines. If you have used any .bib files when creating your article, please include these with your submission so that we can generate the reference list and citations in the journal-specific style. Review our (La)Tex Frequently Asked Questions. If you still need additional help, please email

    6.2 Manuscript Structure

    Manuscripts must include the following sections in this order:

    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Significance Statement 
    • Introduction
    • Materials & Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • References
    • Legends
    • Illustrations, Figures and Tables

    6.2.1 Title Page (on a separate page)

    • Title should be in upper and lower case (Do not use all UPPERcase)
    • Author first name (or initials), middle initial, and last name (surname, family name) and degree(s)
    • Affiliations: use 1, 2, etc. after the degree
    • Authors must include an ORCID. If an author does not have one, they can go here and register for one at no cost.
    • Put an * after the name of the corresponding author

    6.2.2 Abstract, Keywords and Abbreviations

    The abstract should be ~150 words and should reflect the results. Describe the purpose of the study and briefly explain how the study was performed. Summarize the most important observations and their significance. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

    Following the abstract, please list 5-6 keywords for indexing the article. Keywords, along with the abstract and title, are central to ensuring that readers can search for and find your article online. For this reason, to aid in search-ability, words in the title should not be used as keywords. For keyword suggestions, please visit the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) website.

    Please include a list of all abbreviations used in the manuscript. These should be listed in alphabetical order. (Example: NMJ, neuromuscular junction; nAChRs, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors)

    6.2.3 Significance Statement and Introduction

    Significance Statement
    Please include a Significance Statement before the introduction that identifies 2-3 of the most important points of the study (100 characters each) that contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of Alzheimer's or dementia. If your study verifies previous research or presents negative findings, please note this here.

    Provide background that allows readers outside the discipline to understand the significance of the study. Include a brief review of important literature in the relevant field. References cited should be in parentheses ( ).

    6.2.4 Materials and Methods

    Describe in detail any new methods or protocols used, in order that other investigators can replicate the study. Older, better-known methods may be cited in the references but should be described enough that the reader may understand the method.

    Animal Research
    The methods section of the manuscript reporting animal research must include ethics statements that specify the relevant ethics committee approving the research, and associated permit number(s). If ethical approval was not required, reasons should be stated in the manuscript. Relevant details to minimize suffering of the animal should be mentioned.

    Cell Line Research
    The methods section should state the origin of the cell lines. In cases of established cell lines, in addition to origin, the commercial source should be given. If previously unpublished new cell lines were used, the source should be disclosed.

    Human Subjects- Specific Reporting Guidelines
    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number. For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    6.2.5 Results and Statistical Analyses Reporting
    Explain how the results relate to the premise of the study especially in relation to previous related studies and how the present study results might have potential in directing future research.


    Statistical Analyses Reporting
    Please report complete statistical analyses results by including:

    1. The type of statistical tests used
    2. An exact p-value (not a range, e.g. p < 0.05),
    3. Effect sizes
    4. Degrees of freedom
    5. Scatter plots and histograms as well as line or bar graphs to accurately describe your data

    If possible, include raw data.

    6.2.6 Discussion

    Describe the interpretation of the data.

    6.2.7 Conflict of Interests Statement

    At the end of the manuscript, before the Acknowledgements section, statements related to conflicts of interest must appear. Acknowledgments List the names of the individuals along with the contributors who have participated in some capacity but cannot be qualified as authors. Funding Disclose if any funds were received to conduct the research.


    6.2.8 References

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementiasadheres to AMA reference style. Please review the guidelines on AMA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    Journal article (1-6 authors):
    Hu P, Reuben DB. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with physicians during ambulatory visits. Med Care. 2002;40(7):606-613.

    Journal article with more than six authors:
    Geller AC, Venna S, Prout M, et al. Should the skin cancer examination be taught in medical school? Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(9):1201-1203.

    In the references section (i.e., bibliography), please list references in the same order as they were cited in the manuscript. When a website is cited as a reference, provide the date that the website was last accessed.

    Unpublished data and personal correspondence may be cited as references within the text itself and are not to be included in the list of references. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of references used, and all text quoted. Manuscripts submitted in any other format may delay the publication of your article.

    6.2.9 Legends

    Figures, tables, multimedia and other graphics must include an individual legend that is labeled and ordered numerically. The main text of the article should refer to figures as "Figure 1," "Figure 2," etc., tables as "Table 1," "Table 2," etc., videos as "Movie 1," "Movie 2," etc. Extended data should be labeled as Figure 1-1, Figure 1-2, Table 1-1, Table 1-2, etc.


    6.2.10 Illustrations, Figures, Tables and Other Graphics

    All figures and illustrations should contain clean and clear graphics, and must be submitted electronically in their original format (e.g., png, jpeg, tif).


    Line art must have a resolution of at least 900 dpi (dots per inch). Electronic photographs, radiographs, CT scans, MRIs, all medical imaging, and all scanned images must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. If fonts are used in the artwork, they must be embedded in the files. Color images must be created/scanned and saved and submitted as CMYK files. Please note that artwork downloaded from the internet (JPEG or GIF files) cannot be used.

    Ensure that fonts are clear and easy to read should the figures be resized to a 1-column or 2- column format during the layout process of publication. Please use the following guidelines when preparing your image files:

    Graphic Allowances

    For graphics reprinted from another source, provide written permission for reproduction from the copyright owner. Include full credit in the manuscript’s text, figure legends, and/or in the acknowledgment section, as appropriate.

    Embed all images in the manuscript and submit separate files for each image in the original format it was created (e.g., png, jpeg, tiff).

    Image Integrity
    Figures should be minimally processed and should reflect the integrity of the original data in the image. Adjustments to images in brightness, contrast, or color balance should be applied equally to the entire image, provided they do not distort any data in the figure, including the background. Selective adjustments and touch-up tools used on portions of a figure are not appropriate. Images should not be layered or combined into a single image unless it is stated that the figure is a product of time-averaged data. All adjustments to image data should be clearly disclosed in the figure legend. Images may be additionally screened to confirm faithfulness to the original data. Authors should be able to supply raw image data upon request. Authors should also list tools and software used to collect image data and should document settings and manipulations in the Methods section.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

    If your manuscript is in .docx format and contains equations, make sure the equations are editable. Equations must be placed in brackets [ ].

    Tables should have a concise title and should not occupy more than one printed page. Indicate in red where to place the Figures and Tables. Create tables in Word format within the manuscript.
    Use Arabic numerals to name tables (e.g. Table 1). Cite tables in the text in consecutive order. For each table, provide a table heading that clearly and concisely explains the content of the table. Indicate table footnotes with lower-case letters in superscript font. Place the information for the footnote beneath the body of the table.
    If a table will be submitted as a separate document, the filename should contain the surname of the first author and match its label in the manuscript (e.g., SMITH Table 1).

    6.3 Supplemental Material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article. For information on data sharing and where to upload data, please visit Sage's Research Data Sharing Policies.

    6.4 English Language Editing Services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    7. Submitting Your Manuscript

    7.1 How to Submit Your Manuscript

    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias is hosted on Sage Track, a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    7.2 Information Required for Completing Your Submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed on the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.3 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign in to your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    7.4 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

    8. On Acceptance and Publication

    If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been checked for Sage Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

    8.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    8.2 Online Publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting Your Article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

    9. Further Information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias editorial office as follows:

    Erin O'Brien, Publishing Editor


    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)