Part I: Preparing for Data Analysis

Chapter 1: Introduction: The Theory and Practice of Social Research

Social Research: A Primer

Theories and Concepts: Deprivation Theory

Hypotheses and Variables: Religiosity

Social Research Strategies: Inductive and Deductive

Theory and Research in Practice

Chapter 2: The Logic of Measurement

Distinguishing Between Validity and Reliability

Measurement and Information

Classifying Variables as Discrete or Continuous

Chapter 3: Description of Data Sets: The General Social Survey

Part II: Univariate Analysis

Chapter 4: Using SPSS Statistics: Some Basics

Demonstration 4.1: Starting an SPSS Statistics Session

Demonstration 4.2: Exploring the Data View Portion of the Data Editor

Demonstration 4.3: Entering Data— A Preview

Demonstration 4.4: Loading a Data Set

Demonstration 4.5: Raw Data in Data View

Finding Variable Information: Values and Labels

Demonstration 4.6: Variable View Tab

Demonstration 4.7: Ending Your SPSS Statistics Session

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 4.1

Chapter 5: Describing Your Data: Religiosity

Demonstration 5.1: Opening Frequently Used Data Files

Demonstration 5.2: Setting Options—Variable Lists and Output Labels

Demonstration 5.3: Frequency Distributions

Demonstration 5.4: Frequency Distributions—Running Two or More Variables at One Time

Descriptive Statistics: Basic Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Demonstration 5.5: The Frequencies Procedure

Demonstration 5.6: The Descriptives Procedure—Calculating Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Variables

Demonstration 5.7: Printing Your Output (Viewer)

Demonstration 5.8: Adding Headers/Footers and Titles/Text

Demonstration 5.9: Saving Your Output (Viewer)

Demonstration 5.10: Saving Changes to Your Data Set

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 5.1

Chapter 6: Presenting Your Data in Graphic Form: Political Orientations

Graphing Data With Direct “Legacy” Dialogs

Demonstration 6.1: Frequency Table—POLVIEWS

Demonstration 6.2: SPSS Statistics Chart Editor

Demonstration 6.3: Frequency Table—PARTYID

Demonstration 6.4: Political Attitudes

Demonstration 6.5: Histogram—AGE

Demonstration 6.6: Line Chart—INCOME

Saving and Printing Your Charts

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 6.1

Chapter 7: Recoding Your Data: Religiosity and Political Orientations

Demonstration 7.1: Modifying Variables With Recode—ATTEND ® CHATT

Demonstration 7.2: Recoding AGE ® AGECAT

Demonstration 7.3: Recoding POLVIEWS ® POLREC

Demonstration 7.4: Recoding PARTYID ® PARTY

Demonstration 7.5: Saving Changes to Your Data Set

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 7.1

Chapter 8: Creating Composite Measures: Exploring Attitudes Toward Abortion in More Depth

Demonstration 8.1: Identifying the Seven Abortion Variables—File Info

Demonstration 8.2: Running Frequencies for Several Variables at Once

Index: A Form of Composite Measure

Demonstration 8.3: ABORT Index

Demonstration 8.4: Defining ABORT

Demonstration 8.5: Checking New Index—Comparing Scores on Old and New Variables

Demonstration 8.6: Running Frequencies for ABORT

Demonstration 8.7: ABINDEX

Demonstration 8.8: Running Frequencies

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 8.1

Chapter 9: Suggestions for Further Analysis

Demonstration 9.1: Respondents’ Ideal Family Size (CHLDIDEL)

Demonstration 9.2: Important Qualities for Children

Attitudes About Sexual Behavior

Demonstration 9.3: Index of Sexual Permissiveness

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 9.1

Part III: Bivariate Analysis

Chapter 10: Examining the Sources of Religiosity

The Deprivation Theory of Religiosity

Testing Our Hypothesis: Correlating Religiosity and Gender

Demonstration 10.1: Running Crosstabs to Test Our Hypothesis

Demonstration 10.2: Interpreting a Crosstab With Limited Categories

Demonstration 10.3: Correlating Another Measure of Religiosity and Gender

Drawing Conclusions Carefully: Reassessing Our Original Hypothesis

Demonstration 10.4: Interpreting a Crosstab With Ordinal Variables—Religiosity and Age

Interpreting Crosstabs With Ordinal Variables

Demonstration 10.5: Correlating Other Measures of Religiosity and Age

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 10.1

Chapter 11: Political Orientations as Cause and Effect

The Relationship Between POLVIEWS and PARTYID

Demonstration 11.1: POLREC by PARTY

Demonstration 11.2: PARTY by POLREC

Demonstration 11.3: POLREC by AGECAT

Demonstration 11.4: PARTY by AGECAT

Demonstration 11.5: POLREC by RELIG

Demonstration 11.6: PARTY by RELIG

Demonstration 11.7: PARTY and POLREC by SEX

Demonstration 11.8: POLREC by RACE

Demonstration 11.9: PARTY by RACE

Demonstration 11.10: Recoding EDUC ® EDCAT

Demonstration 11.11: POLREC by EDCAT

Demonstration 11.12: PARTY by EDCAT

Some Surprises: Class, Marital Status, and Politics

The Impact of Party and Political Philosophy

Saving Recoded Variable: EDCAT

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 11.1

Chapter 12: What Causes Different Attitudes Toward Abortion?

Demonstration 12.1: Gender and Abortion

Demonstration 12.2: Age and Abortion

Demonstration 12.3: Religion and Abortion

Demonstration 12.4: Politics and Abortion

Demonstration 12.5: Sexual Attitudes and Abortion

Other Factors You Can Explore on Your Own

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 12.1

Chapter 13: Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables

The Logic of Statistical Association: Proportionate Reduction of Error

Lambda (l): A Measure Appropriate for Nominal Variables

Demonstration 13.1: Instructing SPSS Statistics to Calculate Lambda (l)

Interpreting Lambda and Other Measures

Gamma (g): A Measure Appropriate for Ordinal Variables

Demonstration 13.2: Instructing SPSS Statistics to Calculate Gamma (g)—Example 1

Demonstration 13.3: Running Gamma (g)—Example 2 (Reverse Scoring Case)

Additional Measures of Association

Analyzing the Association Between Variables at Different Levels of Measurement

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 13.1

Chapter 14: Correlation and Regression Analysis

Pearson’s r: A Measure Appropriate for Interval/Ratio Variables

Interpreting Pearson’s r and the Coefficient of Determination (r2)

Instructing SPSS Statistics to Calculate Pearson’s r

Demonstration 14.1: Recoding RINCOM06 ® RECINC

Demonstration 14.2: Using SPSS Statistics to Compute Pearson’s r

Demonstration 14.3: Requesting Several Correlation Coefficients

Demonstration 14.4: Regression

Demonstration 14.5: Presenting Data Graphically—Producing a Scatterplot With a Regression Line

An Indication of Direction and Strength of Association

Measures of Association for Interval and Ratio Variables

Analyzing the Association Between Variables at Different Levels of Measurement

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 14.1

Chapter 15: Tests of Significance

Significance Tests: Part of the Larger Body of Inferential Statistics

Statistical Significance Versus Measures of Association

Demonstration 15.1: Instructing SPSS Statistics to Calculate Chi-Square

Significance and Association

Demonstration 15.2: Instructing SPSS Statistics to Run Independent-Samples t Test

Demonstration 15.3: t Test—EDUC by SEX

Demonstration 15.4: Instructing SPSS Statistics to Run ANOVA

A Statistical Toolbox: A Summary

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 15.1

Chapter 16: Suggestions for Further Bivariate Analyses

Demonstration 16.1: Desired Family Size

Demonstration 16.2: Investigating Sexual Permissiveness Further

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 16.1

Part IV: Multivariate Analysis

Chapter 17: Multiple Causation: Examining Religiosity in Greater Depth

Demonstration 17.1: The Impact of Age and Sex on Religiosity

Demonstration 17.2: Family Status and Religiosity

Demonstration 17.3: Family Status and Religiosity, Controlling for Age

Demonstration 17.4: Social Class and Religiosity

Other Variables to Explore

Chi-Square and Measures of Association

Recoding SEX to Create a Dummy Variable: MALE

Recoding RACE to Create a Dummy Variable: WHITE

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 17.1

Chapter 18: Dissecting the Political Factor

Political Philosophy and Party Identification

Demonstration 18.1: Controlling for Education

Demonstration 18.2: The Mystery of Politics and Marital Status

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 18.1

Chapter 19: A Powerful Prediction of Attitudes Toward Abortion

Demonstration 19.1: Religious Affiliation and Church Attendance

Demonstration 19.2: Religious Affiliation, Church Attendance, and Abortion

Politics (POLREC, PARTY) and Abortion (ABORT)

Demonstration 19.3: The Interaction of Religion and Politics on Abortion Attitudes

Demonstration 19.4: Constructing an Index of Ideological Traditionalism

Sexual Attitudes and Abortion

Demonstration 19.5: Recode PREMARSX and HOMOSEX

Demonstration 19.6: The Relationship Between Sexual Permissiveness and IND

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 19.1

Chapter 20: Suggestions for Further Multivariate Analyses

Ideal Family Size and Abortion

Capital Punishment, Gender, and Race

Demonstration 20.1: CAPPUN by SEX

Demonstration 20.2: CAPPUN by SEX, Controlling for RACE

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 20.1

Part V: The Adventure Continues

Chapter 21: Designing and Executing Your Own Survey

The Social Research Process and Proposal

Designing and Executing Your Own Survey

Getting Ready for Data Analysis Using SPSS Statistics

Demonstration 21.1: Example 1—Defining ID

Demonstration 21.2: Example 2—Defining CHLDIDEL

Demonstration 21.3: Copying a Variable

Demonstration 21.4: Saving Your New File

Demonstration 21.5: Accessing File Information for Coding and Editing

Demonstration 21.6: Moving Through Data View

Demonstration 21.7: Entering Data

Demonstration 21.8: Revising or Deleting Data

Demonstration 21.9: Saving Your Data File

Writing a Research Report

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

SPSS Statistics Lab Exercise 21.1

Chapter 22: Further Opportunities for Social Research

SPSS Statistics Commands Introduced in This Chapter

Appendix B: Questionnaire for Class Survey