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Building Services Engineering Research & Technology

Building Services Engineering Research & Technology

An International Journal

eISSN: 14770849 | ISSN: 01436244 | Current volume: 45 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly

Building Services Engineering Research & Technology is one of the foremost, international peer-reviewed journals that publishes the highest quality original research relevant to today’s Built Environment.

Published in conjunction with CIBSE, this impressive journal reports on the latest research, providing you with an invaluable guide to recent developments in the field.

BSER&T covers the full range of energy and environmental services in buildings, including:

  • Heating
  • Ventilation
  • Air conditioning
  • Refrigeration
  • Building electrical services
  • Building acoustics
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Distribution and supply of air and water
  • Vertical transport
  • Buildings integrated renewables
  • Ground source energy
  • Building systems related health, comfort and wellbeing
  • Sustainable building systems
  • Urban heat island

Outstanding features of BSER&T:

  • All articles are peer reviewed
  • International Advisory Board ensures the highest standards of quality
  • Articles on ground-breaking research
  • Contains critical reviews of the latest literature in the field
  • Based on high-quality articles
  • Building Services Engineering

Based on high quality articles Building Services Engineering Research & Technology ensures the very latest information is presented throughout each issue.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Building Services Engineering Research & Technology is one of the foremost, international peer reviewed journals that publishes the highest quality original research relevant to today’s Built Environment. Published in conjunction with CIBSE, this impressive journal reports on the latest research providing you with an invaluable guide to recent developments in the field.

Building Services Engineering Research & Technology embraces the systems, energy and environmental issues in the built environment relating to:

Air conditioning
Artificial intelligence and machine learning
Building information modelling
Comfort, health and wellbeing
Commissioning, operation and maintenance
Condition based maintenance
Control systems
Data assimilation and exploitation
Distribution and supply of air and water
District heating and cooling
Electrical services
Elevators and other vertical transport systems
Energy demands and emissions
Environmental assessment and mitigation
Environmental conditioning
Façade Engineering
Facilities management
Fire engineering
Fire safety
Health, comfort and wellbeing
Heating and cooling
Impact of climate change
Indoor environment quality, performance and productivity
Integrated renewable energy systems
Low energy design of passive and active buildings
Natural and mechanical ventilation
Occupant feedback
Passive and low-carbon design and operation
Performance assessment
Simulation and optimization
Smart technologies
Sustainable building systems
Tools and techniques for analysis, development and operation
Urban heat island
Urban/City scale modelling
Vertical transportation
Water supply and sanitation
Weather data for modelling, simulation and design
Whole building assessment


Lynne Jack Heriot-Watt University, UK
Andrew Shea University of Bath, UK
Editorial Board
Abdullahi Ahmed Canterbury Christ Church University, UK
Ruchi Choudhary Cambridge University, UK
David Coley University of Bath, UK
Tim Dwyer University College London, UK
Mahroo Eftekhari Loughborough University, UK
Philip Griffiths Ulster University, UK
Rajat Gupta Oxford Brookes University, UK
Simon Ho University of West of England, UK
Sung-Min Hong University College London, UK
Ewan Jones AECOM, UK
Geoff Levermore The University of Manchester, UK
Mark Phillipson Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
Muthukumar Ramaswamy Practitioner, India
Steve Sharples University of Liverpool, UK
Anusha Wijewardane University of Dundee, UK
Robin Wilson Nottingham University, UK
International Advisory Board
Ian Beausoleil-Morrison Carleton University, Canada
Drury B Crawley Bentley Systems Inc., USA
Livio De Santoli Universita La Sapienza, Italy
David Fisk Imperial College, UK
Vishal Garg International Institute of Information Technology, India
Y. Jiang Tsinghua University, China
Jean J.A. Lebrun University of Liege, Belgium
Jianlei Niu The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Peter Riederer Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, France
Mats Sandberg University of Gavle, Sweden
Albert So Asian Institute of the Built Environment, Hong Kong
Jeffrey Spitler Oklahoma State University, USA
Yang Wang China Agricultural University, China
  • Business Source Premier
  • Cbaweb
  • Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • Current Citations
  • Education Index
  • Ei Compendex
  • Engineering Index Annual
  • Ergonomics Abstracts
  • Ibsedex
  • Iconda
  • Inspec
  • Mechanical & Transportation Engineering Abstracts
  • SciVal
  • Scopus
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Building Services Engineering Research and Technology will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types and Word Count
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Reference style
      4.4 Supplementary material
      4.5 Additional items that are required for your submission
      4.6 English language editing services
      4.7 British English
      4.8 Equations
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types and Word Count

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology publishes material which is original, a useful extension of knowledge in the subject area and well presented. Acceptance is conditional on addressing any referees' comments transmitted by the editor. Discussion may be solicited from outside commentators for publication with submissions. Authors will normally be given the opportunity to reply. Contributions take the following forms:

    a) Research papers, case studies and review papers: Papers should normally be between 4,000 – 9,000 words long. Generally, the total number of figures should not exceed 12.

    b) Review Paper: A critical review of the state of the art in one or more areas related to the scope of BSER&T. A review paper does not report original research but provides a reasoned logical and ordered explanation of the current state of the art knowledge based on information distilled from other peer reviewed published articles. All source material should be fully referenced.

    c) Technical Notes: These papers need not contain original research but should be of wider interest to the building services industry. These will normally be a maximum of 4000 words plus up to 5 figures.

    d) Letter to the Editor

    When the subject matter merits colour reproduction of figures, feasibility should be discussed with the Editor before the paper is submitted. However, it should be noted that the cost of colour reproduction must be met by the author.

           Please include an abstract of no more than 200 words.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology operates a conventional single-anonymize reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is always concealed from the submitting author. All papers submitted to Building Services Engineering Research and Technology are subject to peer review by members of a carefully appointed editorial board.

    BSER&T does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication.
    Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.

    • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.

    • The author has recommended the reviewer.

    • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

    Please note that the journal’s editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for the journal can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    • Approved the version to be published,
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.4 Funding

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Building Services Engineering Research and Technology to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Reference style

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology adheres to the Sage Vancouver reference style. View the Sage Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file

    4.4 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.5 Additional items that are required for your submission.
    You will need to prepare and include the following items:
    Practical Application - this short (max 100 words) paragraph should be inserted after the abstract section in your paper and should explain how your contribution will benefit the practice of built environment professionals.
    List of figures/tables - A list of legends (titles) should be inserted after the reference section. This provides a cross-check for the production team that all figures/tables are properly included.
    Keywords - You will be asked to select 3 keywords from a list of topics to help categorise your submission. (You may also add keywords of your own choosing).

    4.6 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    4.7 British English

    Please use British (United Kingdom) English rather than US (American) English when preparing your article, e.g. colour.

    4.8 Equations

    The journal’s preference is for the use of the multiplication ‘dot’, and superscript negative exponent instead of ‘/’ (solidus or slash)

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Building Services Engineering Research and Technology editorial office as follows:

    Dr Andy Shea,

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