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Corrections: A Text/Reader
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Corrections: A Text/Reader

Third Edition
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January 2019 | 768 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The Third Edition of Corrections: A Text/Reader provides students with the best of both worlds—a brief authored text accompanied by carefully selected and edited readings. Clear explanations of all of the major course topics help students understand the impact of new directions and policy in corrections. Policy-oriented original research articles demonstrate how research drives these advances. Designed throughout to enhance understanding, the book includes a helpful "How to Read a Research Article" section before the first reading, as well as article introductions, photographs, and discussion questions that capture students’ interest and help them develop their critical thinking skills. 

New to the Third Edition

  • Nearly 75% of the journal articles have been updated to introduce students to current research on important topics such as racial and ethnic disparities in probation, influences on inmate misconduct, transgender prison inmates, and lethal injection protocol.
  • Updated and expanded coverage of ethical considerations, special populations, and the history of corrections provides students with the context for understanding policy decisions and their consequences, both past and present. 
    New Sections on Ethics (Section IV) and the Death Penalty (Section XVI) offer students insights into key issues in corrections today.
  • More coverage on disparities in sentencing and drug courts encourages students to think critically about U.S. drug policies and their effectiveness.
  • Additional content on federal procedures and private prisons shows real examples of private prisons, their profit motives, and the effect they have on the correctional system.
  • The most current data, facts, statistics, and research are included throughout the book to provide students with insights into the world of corrections today.

Give your students the SAGE edge! 
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at edge.sagepub.com/stohr3e.

 
 
About the Authors
 
Foreword
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
SECTION I. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
Introduction: What Is Corrections?

 
From Arrest to Punishment

 
The Major Punishment Justifications

 
READING 1. The Goals of Corrections: Perspectives From the Line

 
READING 2. Broken Beyond Repair: Rehabilitative Penology and American Political Development

 
 
SECTION II. Correctional History: Ancient Times to Colonial Jails
Narrative of What Happened When Three Men Were First Placed in the Missouri State

 
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

 
Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

 
Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

 
Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

 
Colonial Jails and Prisons

 
READING 3. An Historical Outline of the Penitentiary System

 
 
SECTION III. Correctional History: The 17th to 20th Centuries
Jim Crow Treatment in Prisons

 
Introduction: The Grand Reforms

 
Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models

 
Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

 
The Renewed Promise of Reform

 
Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons

 
Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

 
Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

 
READING 4. “Much and Unfortunately Neglected”: Women in Early and Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prisons

 
 
SECTION IV. Ethics and Corrections
A Novice Bows to Subcultural Pressure

 
Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

 
Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

 
Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

 
Why People Behave Unethically

 
How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices

 
War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

 
READING 5. Ethics in a Mountain State County Jail

 
READING 6. Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies of Actions and Controls

 
 
SECTION V. Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Vindictive Versus Sensible Sentencing

 
What Is Sentencing?

 
Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

 
Habitual Offender Statutes

 
Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences

 
Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders

 
Problem-Solving Courts

 
Drug Courts

 
Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

 
Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

 
Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

 
The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

 
READING 7. Cracked Justice

 
READING 8. Determinants of State Innovations in American Sentencing and Corrections Policy: A Systematic Review

 
 
SECTION VI. Jails and Detention Centers
A Mentally Ill Inmate in the Dona Ana County Jail, New Mexico

 
Introduction: The Community Institution

 
Jail Types

 
Jail Inmates and Their Processing

 
Overcrowding

 
Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity

 
The Poor and the Mentally Ill

 
Medical Problems

 
Substance Abuse and Jails

 
Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

 
Innovations in Jails

 
READING 9. Why Do Some Jail Inmates Not Engage in Treatment and Services?

 
READING 10. National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later

 
 
SECTION VII. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
The Origins of Probation

 
Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

 
Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

 
The Probation Officer Role

 
Models of Probation Supervision

 
Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

 
Probation Officer Stress

 
Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

 
Intermediate Sanctions

 
READING 11. A Probation Profanation: Race, Ethnicity, and Probation in a Midwestern Sample

 
READING 12. Sex Offender Supervision in Context: The Need for Qualitative Examinations of Social Distance in Sex Offender–Supervision Officer Relationships

 
 
SECTION VIII. Prisons and the Correctional Client
Kitchen Supervisor Sexually Abuses Two Male Inmates

 
Introduction: The State of Prisons

 
Prison Organizations

 
Prison Value?

 
Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

 
The Prison Subculture

 
Gangs and the Prison Subculture

 
Violence

 
Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping, and Social Support

 
Special Populations

 
READING 13. Sex Differences in the Predictors of Prisoner Misconduct

 
READING 14. Prison Architecture and Inmate Misconduct: A Multilevel Assessment

 
 
SECTION IX. The Corrections Experience for Staff
John’s Tragic Story

 
Introduction

 
The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

 
Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists

 
Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

 
Organizational Culture

 
Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

 
Correctional Roles

 
The Subculture and Socialization

 
Staff Interactions With Inmates

 
Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover

 
Ethics

 
Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work

 
READING 15. Problems at Work: Exploring the Correlates of Role Stress Among Correctional Staff

 
READING 16. Gendered Adherence: Correctional Officers and Therapeutic Reform in a Reentry Facility

 
 
SECTION X. Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
The Perils of Parole

 
What Is Parole?

 
Parole Boards

 
What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

 
The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities

 
What Makes for a Successful Reentry?

 
Determining Parole “Success”

 
Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

 
House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems

 
Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism

 
READING 17. Examining the Predictors of Recidivism Among Men and Women Released From Prison in Ohio

 
READING 18. Prisoner Reentry in a Small Metropolitan Community: Obstacles and Policy Recommendations

 
 
SECTION XI. Women and Corrections
Supervising Is Different for Women

 
Introduction

 
History and Growth

 
Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

 
Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

 
Female Correctional Officers

 
READING 19. A Historical Review of Mother and Child Programs for Incarcerated Women

 
READING 20. Examining External Support Received in Prison and Concerns About Reentry Among Incarcerated Women

 
 
SECTION XII. Minorities and Corrections
Undocumented Workers and Their Side of the Story

 
Introduction

 
Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination

 
A Legacy of Racism

 
The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity

 
Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

 
Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration

 
Minorities Working in Corrections

 
READING 21. Racial Desegregation in Prisons

 
READING 22. Mass Incarceration Through a Different Lens: Race, Subcontext, and Perceptions of Punitiveness of Correctional Alternatives When Compared to Prison

 
 
SECTION XIII. Juveniles and Corrections
Too Young for Life

 
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

 
The Extent of Delinquency

 
The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

 
History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

 
Childhood in the United States

 
The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts

 
Processing Juvenile Offenders

 
Juvenile Community Corrections

 
Intensive Probation

 
Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

 
READING 23. Juvenile Justice: The Legacy of Punitive Policy

 
READING 24. Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies Among Juvenile Inmates

 
 
SECTION XIV. Legal Issues in Corrections
Prison Without Law

 
Introduction

 
The Rule of Law

 
The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963

 
The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978

 
The Deference Period: 1979–Present

 
First Amendment

 
Fourth Amendment

 
Eighth Amendment

 
Fourteenth Amendment

 
The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

 
Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

 
Legal Issues in Probation and Parole

 
READING 25. Correctional Officer Excessive Use of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983

 
READING 26. Transgender Inmates in Prisons: A Review of Applicable Statutes and Policies

 
 
SECTION XV. Correctional Programming and Treatment
Life’s Turning Points

 
The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

 
The Shift From “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”

 
Evidence-Based Practices

 
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

 
Substance Abuse Programming

 
Anger Management

 
Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

 
Mentally Ill Offenders

 
READING 27. Reducing Institutional Disorder: Using the Inmate Risk Assessment for Segregation Placement to Triage Treatment Services at the Front End of Prison Sentences

 
READING 28. Gender Differences in Prison-Based Drug Treatment Participation

 
 
SECTION XVI. The Death Penalty
A Very Unusual, Very Expensive Serial Killer

 
The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

 
Methods of Execution Used in the United States

 
Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

 
Does the Death Penalty Deter?

 
Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

 
Women and the Death Penalty

 
The Death Penalty and Mental Disability

 
The Death Penalty and Mental Illness

 
The Innocence Revolution

 
READING 29. The Execution of Wallace Wilkerson: Precedent and Portent

 
READING 30. How Would You Like to Die? Glossip v. Gross Deals Blow to Abolitionists

 
 
SECTION XVII. Corrections in the 21st Century
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

 
Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections

 
Decarceration

 
Professionalization

 
Corrections Is a Relationship Business

 
Privatization

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
READING 31. The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model Revisited: Using Biosocial Criminology to Enhance Offender Rehabilitation

 
READING 32. Decarceration and Its Possible Effects on Inmates, Staff, and Communities

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
  • Carefully selected chapter-by-chapter video and multimedia content which enhance classroom-based explorations of key topics
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
Instructor Resource Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • SAGE edge for Instructors, supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
  • Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group project.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Video and web resources provide further research and insights that bring concepts to life and make learning easier.
  • Access to all tables, figures, learning objectives, and chapter outlines from the text.

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ISBN: 9781544339221
£77.00