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Drugs, Crime, and Justice
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Drugs, Crime, and Justice

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November 2014 | 344 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Drugs, Crime, and Justice is an engaging, yet comprehensive, analysis of the interrelationships among drug use/abuse, crime, and justice. The first four chapters introduce readers to the interrelationships between drugs and crime, while the second later chapters provide readers with an overview of historical and contemporary policies, as well as a comprehensive review of research on policing drug markets, arresting drug offenders, and prosecution and sentencing of drug offenders in state and federal courts. The authors also examine and assess the impact of the war on drugs and conclude with a discussion of recent policy changes such as drug courts and reform/repeal of mandatory minimum sentences and an examination of new and emerging drug policies in the 21st Century.
 
CHAPTER 1: DRUGS, CRIME, AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: OVERVIEW
Drug Use in the United States  
Arrests and Incarceration for Drug-Related Crime  
The Connections among Drug Abuse, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System  
Goal of the Book and Overview of the Remaining Chapters  
CHAPTER 2: PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND DRUG USE/ABUSE  
Basic Concepts about Psychoactive Drugs  
Tolerance, Dependence, Abuse and Addiction  
Drug Abuse and Drug Misuse  
Drug Dependence and Addiction  
Factors Influencing Drugs’ Effects on Behavior and Mood  
Classes of Drugs and the Drug Enforcement Administration Schedules  
Classes and Types of Illegal Drugs and Their Effects  
Marijuana  
Focus on an Issue: Marijuana as the “Gateway Drug”?  
Central Nervous System Depressants: Opiates  
Heroin  
Synthetic Opiates (Opioids)  
Sedative-Hypnotics  
Stimulant Drugs  
Cocaine  
Crack Cocaine  
Amphetamines  
Methamphetamine  
Hallucinogens  
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)  
Psilocybin (Mushrooms) and Peyote (Mescaline)  
Phencyclidine (PCP)  
Club Drugs  
Summary: Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects  
 
CHAPTER 3: THEORIES OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE
Explaining Drug Use and Abuse  
Is Addiction a Moral Problem or a Disease?  
Biological and Genetic Theories  
Psychological Theories  
Sociological Theories  
Summary: Theories of Drug Use and Abuse  
 
CHAPTER 4: DRUG ABUSE AND CRIME
The Drugs-Crime Connection  
Drug Use Among Offenders  
Drug Use Among Offenders Under Correctional Supervision  
The Meaning of the Drugs-Crime Connection?  
Drugs and Crime: A Complex Relationship  
Theories Explaining the Drugs-Crime Connection  
Drugs and Property Crime  
Drugs and Violence  
Stimulant Drugs and Violence  
Other Drugs and Violence  
Focus on an Issue: Gangs and Drug Dealing  
Summary: Drug Abuse and Crime  
 
CHAPTER 5: THE WAR ON DRUGS: HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES
The War on Drugs: A Historical Overview  
The First War on Drugs: Alcohol and Prohibition  
Criminalizing Drug Use: Targeting Opium, Morphine and Other Mood-Altering Drugs  
The Harrison Tax Act of 1914  
Focus on an Issue: Racial and Ethnic Prejudice and the Case for Criminalizing Drug Use  
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937  
Enforcing the Drug-Control Legislation  
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970  
The Contemporary War on Drugs  
Sentencing Reform and Sentencing Guidelines  
Sentencing Guidelines for Drug Offenses  
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes  
Sentences Imposed on Offenders Convicted of Offenses with Mandatory Penalties  
Focus on an Issue: The Crack-Power Cocaine Disparity  
Criticisms of Mandatory Minimums  
Drug-Free School Zones  
Reducing the Supply of Drugs  
Summary: The War on Drugs  
 
CHAPTER 6: POLICING DRUGS: THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Police and the War on Drugs: A Focus on Arresting Drug Users and Sellers  
Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests  
Explaining Increases in Arrest Rates for Drug Offenders  
Did Arrests Increase Because Drug Use Increased?  
Did Arrests Increase as a Result of Changes in Policies and Practices?  
The Effect of Changes in Policing Strategies  
Stop and Frisk Procedures  
Pretext Traffic Stops  
Drug Courier Profiles  
Financial Incentives To Fight the War on Drugs  
Focus on an Issue: Policing for Profit—Drug-Related Forfeitures  
The Racial Disparity in Arrest Rates  
Do Blacks Use or Sell Drugs at Higher Rates than Whites?  
Are Police More Likely to Arrest Blacks than Whites for Drug Offenses?  
Summary: Policing Drugs and Drug Offenders  
 
CHAPTER 7: PROSECUTING DRUG OFFFENDERS IN STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS
Explaining Decisions of Prosecutors and Judges: The Focal Concerns Perspective  
Drug Offenders in State and Federal Courts  
Drug Offenders in State Courts  
Drug Offenders in Federal Courts  
Prosecutors’ Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisions  
Research on Prosecutors’ Charging Decisions  
Charging Decisions in State Court Systems  
Charging Decisions in the Federal Court System  
Focus on an Issue: Prosecution of Pregnant Women Who Use/Abuse Drugs  
Filing Charges that Trigger Mandatory Minimum Sentences  
U.S. Attorneys and the Substantial Assistance Departure  
Focus on an Issue: Substantial Assistance Departures and Mandatory Minimum  
Sentences: Melendez v. United States  
Research on Use of Substantial Assistance Departures  
Summary: Prosecuting Drug Offenders  
 
CHAPTER 8: SENTENCING DRUG OFFENDERS
Trends in Sentencing Drug Offenders  
Focus on an Issue: The Supreme Court and the Substantial Assistance Departure  
Modeling the Sentencing Process  
Disparity and Discrimination in Sentencing  
Types of Sentencing Disparity  
Types of Sentencing Discrimination  
Warranted Versus Unwarranted Disparity  
Gender Disparities in Sentencing Drug Offenders  
Focus on an Issue: Changes in the Racial Dynamics of Women’s Incarceration  
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sentencing Drug Offenders  
Disparity Versus Discrimination in Sentencing Drug Offenders  
Race and Imprisonment  
Race/Ethnicity and Sentencing of Drug Offenders in State and Federal Courts  
The “Dangerous Drug Offender” in State and Federal Court  
Summary: Sentencing Drug Offenders: Severity, Disparity and Discrimination  
 
CHAPTER 9: THE IMPACT OF THE WAR ON DRUGS
The Impact of the War on Drugs on Use of Illegal Drugs  
 
Focus on an Issue: Malign Neglect?
The Impact of the War on Drugs on the Prison Population  
The Imprisonment Binge  
Mass Incarceration of Drug Offenders  
The Characteristics of Imprisoned Drug Offenders  
Focus on an Issue: The Effect of Imprisonment on Recidivism Rates for Felony Drug Offenders  
Race and Imprisonment for Drug Offenses  
Gender and Imprisonment for Drug Offenses  
The Impact of the War on Drugs on Crime: A Focus on Policing  
Explaining the “New York Murder Mystery”  
The Effect of Drug Arrests on Crime  
The Effects of Policing Strategies Designed to Reduce Illegal Drug Activity and Other Types of Crime  
Displacement and Diffusion—Does Crime Simply Move Around the Corner?  
The Collateral Consequences of the War on Drugs  
Focus on an Issue: The Effect on Imprisonment on Employment Prospects  
Summary: The Impact of the War on Drugs  
 
CHAPTER 10: DRUGS, CRIME AND JUSTICE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Public Health Approaches: A Focus on Demand and Harm Reduction  
Treating Drug-Involved Offenders: Effectiveness of Different Models  
Diversion  
Focus on an Issue: Should Drug Dealers be Eligible for Treatment Diversion if They Also Use Drugs?  
Jail Treatment  
Prison Treatment  
Treatment under Community Corrections Supervision  
Drug Courts  
Key Elements of Drug Courts  
Do Drug Courts Work?  
Medication Assisted Treatment  
Modifying Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the 21st Century  
New Approaches: More Effective Solutions?  
The Debate over Decriminalization and Legalization of Illicit Drugs  
Legalization  
Decriminalization  
Potential Benefits and Problems from Legalization and Decriminalization  
Prescription and Maintenance Models  
Decriminalizing and Legalizing Marijuana: Medical Marijuana, Decriminalization, and Legalization  
Medical Marijuana  
Decriminalization and Legalization of Marijuana  
Reimagining and Creating New Approaches to the Drugs, Crime and Justice Problem  

Supplements

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  • SAGE Journal Articles combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience. Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts.

I have taught Drugs and Crime and each semester I use a different book. I have struggled finding a book that covers the topic comprehensively and is student friendly. Drugs, Crime, and Justice solved my problem.

Doshie Piper
Sociology Dept, Univ Of The Incarnate Word
October 9, 2016

I am presently putting together a new module that will be on drugs, crime and justice and although this is still in the planning stage I will use the textbook as the core content for the lectures and presentations that I will be using, and also will order copies for the library.

Ms Janice Holloway
Department of Law, Aberystwyth University
June 27, 2016

Excellent book for this module. This book covers all aspects of drug use both legal and illegal. The statistical data that arises in the book is a valuable asset when making comparisons with other jurisdictions

Mr Martin Dorgan
MBA, University College Cork (NUI)
February 17, 2016

This book has some very relevant aspects associated with the course content. This will be recommended in our reading list for level 5 programmes Community Engagement and Partnership working and Level 6 Drugs and Alcohol in Society

Mr Stuart Harry Woodcock
Sociology , Chester University
August 19, 2015

The only reason that this book is recommended for supplemental reading is that the course does not have a specific drugs and crime module.

Miss Emily Loftus
Sport, Public Services, Travel and Tourism, South Essex College
March 26, 2015

This proved to be a useful supplementary text to provide context to a specific criminological issue.

Dr Lisa Sugiura
Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology, Southampton University
January 15, 2015

Perfect book for our AJ 13 Narcotics Investigation & Techniques course.

Professor Nancy Bengoa-Beterbide
Criminal Justice, Lassen Community College
November 10, 2014

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ISBN: 9781452277080
£62.00