Preface

About the Authors

CHAPTER 1. The What and the Why of Statistics

Asking Research Questions

Formulating the Hypotheses

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Examining a Diverse Society

CHAPTER 2. The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data

Proportions and Percentages

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Graphic Presentation of Data

Statistics in Practice: Foreign-Born Population 65 Years and Over

Reading the Research Literature: The Digital Divide

CHAPTER 3. Measures of Central Tendency

Reading the Research Literature: The Case of Reporting Income

Statistics in Practice: The Shape of the Distribution

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

CHAPTER 4. Measures of Variability

The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation

Statistics in Practice: Diversity in U.S. Society

The Variance and the Standard Deviation

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Community College Mentoring

CHAPTER 5. The Normal Distribution

Properties of the Normal Distribution

An Application of the Normal Curve

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

Reading the Research Literature: Child Health and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER 6. Sampling and Sampling Distribution

Basic Probability Principles

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

Statistics in Practice: A Sampling Lesson

CHAPTER 7. Estimation

Point and Interval Estimation

Confidence Intervals for Means

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Women Victims of Intimate Violence

CHAPTER 8. Testing Hypotheses

Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing With One Sample and Population Variance Unknown

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Means

The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: Cigarette Use Among Teens

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Hypothesis Testing

CHAPTER 9. The Chi-Square Test and Measures of Association

The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square

Statistics in Practice: Respondent and Father Education

Proportional Reduction of Error

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square–Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square–Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Reading the Research Literature: India’s Internet-Using Population

CHAPTER 10. Analysis of Variance

Understanding Analysis of Variance

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Ethical Consumer

Reading the Research Literature: Emerging Adulthood

CHAPTER 11. Regression and Correlation

Linear Relationships and Prediction Rules

A Negative Relationship: Age and Internet Hours per Week

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA

Statistics in Practice: Multiple Regression

ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression

Reading the Research Literature: Academic Intentions and Support

Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers

Appendix B. The Standard Normal Table

Appendix C. Distribution of t

Appendix D. Distribution of Chi-Square

Appendix E. Distribution of F

Appendix F. A Basic Math Review

Learning Check Solutions

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Glossary

Notes

Index