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German Journal of Human Resource Management

German Journal of Human Resource Management

Zeitschrift für Personalforschung

eISSN: 23970030 | ISSN: 23970022 | Current volume: 38 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Quarterly

The German Journal of Human Resource Management (GHRM), formerly Zeitschrift für Personalforschung (ZfP), was founded in 1987 and is one of the world’s oldest academic journals published in this specialism. From its origins as a forum for research from Austria, Germany and Switzerland, the German Journal of Human Resource Management has broadened its reach to the international academic HR community and is the only HR journal outside the US and UK listed in the Social Science Citation Index.

Double blind peer-reviewed and published quarterly, the German Journal of Human Resource Management covers a broad spectrum of research topics related to human resource management, employment relations, behaviour in organisations and personnel economics. The Journal has an international editorial team and board and welcomes scholarly work from regions outside German-speaking countries. From October 2020, GHRM will accept the submission of original contributions in English only.

The German Journal of Human Resource Management also publishes special issues on current research topics which are edited by international guest editors. Previous special issues include Green HRM, International HRM, HRM in Professional Service Firms, HRM from a Paradox Perspective and From Silence to Voice in Organizations Personnel Economics, Organizational Working Time Regimes and HRM in Family Firms.

The German Journal of Human Resource Management is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Why publish in the German Journal of Human Resource Management:

  1. Rigorous double blind peer review process
  2. Global dissemination of your article via the SAGE Journals platform
  3. High quality copyediting, typesetting and presentation of your article
  4. Online first publication

The German Journal of Human Resource Management (GHRM) formerly Zeitschrift für Personalforschung (ZfP), is a leading peer-reviewed resource for the international HR community, with a global reach and editorial board.

It publishes quarterly and aims to advance scientific knowledge covering a broad spectrum of research topics related to human resource management, employment relations, behaviour in organisations and personnel economics. It publishes both theoretical articles as well as empirical work and is open to a wide range of methodological approaches. From October 2020, GHRM will accept the submission of original contributions in English only.

For submissions with cross-sectional data please note this guideline.

Michael Beckmann University of Basel, Switzerland
Martin Schneider Paderborn University, Germany
Associate Editors
Torsten Biemann University of Mannheim, Germany
Julia Brandl University of Innsbruck, Austria
Bernadette Bullinger IE University, Madrid
Helen De Cieri Monash University, Australia
Robert Dur Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
Anders Dysvik BI Norwegian Business School, Norway
Marion Festing ESCP Business School, Germany
Fabian Jintae Froese University of Göttingen, Germany
Christian Grund RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Marjaana Gunkel Free University Bozen, Italy
Chrsitine Harbring RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Anne-Wil Harzing Middlesex University London, UK
Axel Haunschild Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
Stephan Kaiser Univerity of the Federal Armed Forces Munich, Germany
Lena Knappert Free University Amsterdam, Netherlands
Michael Müller-Camen WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Renate Ortlieb University of Graz, Austria
Tanja Rabl RPTU Kaiserslautern-Landau, Germany
Stefan Süß Heinrich Heine University, Germany
Beatrice van der Heijden Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands
Jürgen Wegge Technical University Dresden, Germany
Editorial Board
Dorothea Alewell University of Hamburg, Germany
Yochanan Altmann University of Haifa, Israel
Cordula Barzantny Toulouse Business School, France
Jamie Bonache University Carlos III Madrid, Spain
Janine Bosack Dublin City University, Ireland
Peter Dowling La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia
David E. Guest King’s College London, UK
Monika Hamori  
Lisa Handke FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Sven Hauff University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Germany
Markus Helfen Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Germany
Martin Högl LMU Munich, Germany
Christina Hoon Bielefeld University, Germany
Anja Iseke OWL University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Germany
Eric Kearney University of Potsdam, Germany
Anne Keegan University College Dublin, Ireland
Hugo Kehr Technical University of Munich, Germany
Rudolf Kerschreiter Free University Berlin, Germany
Martin Kleinmann University of Zurich, Switzerland
Alexander Koch Aarhus University, Denmark
Florian Kunze University of Konstanz, Germany
Wenzel Matiaske University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Germany
Wolfgang Mayrhofer WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Bertolt Meyer Technical University Chemnitz, Germany
Anne-Katrin Neyer Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany
Eddy Ng Queen's University, Canada
Markus Pudelko University of Tübingen, Germany
Shuang Ren Queens University Belfast, UK
Doug Renwick Nottingham Trent University, UK
Karin Sanders UNSW Sydney, Australia
Thomas Schneidhofer Private University Seeburg, Austria
Hugh Scullion University of Hull, UK
Stefan Strohmeier Saarland University, Germany
Mary Triana Vanderbilt, USA
Donald Truxillo University of Limerick, Ireland
Laura Venz Leuphana University Lündeburg, Germany
Mo Wang University of Florida, USA
Mona Weiss Free University Berlin, Germany
Johannes Wendsche Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Germany
Uta Wilkens Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
Hannes Zacher Leipzig University, Germany
Thomas Zwick University of Würzburg, Germany
Senior Editors
David Marsden† London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Oswald Neuberger University of Augsburg, Germany
Werner Nienhüser University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Hans-Gerd Ridder Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany
Christian Scholz † Saarland University, Germany
Thomas Spengler Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany
Susanne Tietze Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Dudo von Eckardstein WU Vienna, Austria
Hartmut Wächter † Trier University, Germany
Wolfgang Weber † Paderborn University, Germany
Jürgen Weibler University of Hagen, Germany
Rolf Wunderer University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
  • Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC)
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: German Journal of Human Resource Management

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of German Journal of Human Resource Management will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that German Journal of Human Resource Management may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types and Handling of Cross Sectional Data
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Declaration of conflicting interests
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to German Journal of Human Resource Management, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types and Handling of Cross Sectional Data

    From October 2020, German Journal of Human Resource Management will publish original articles in English language only, either in the form of a standard manuscript, as part of a Special Issue or as an invited paper or commentary.

    For submissions with cross-sectional data please note this guideline.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    Articles should be of around 10,000 words in length and abstracts should be 200-300 words.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Incoming contributions are forwarded to the editors-in-chiefs, who ask an editor to supervise the contribution and coordinate the review process. The assigned supervising editor ensures the manuscript is anonymised, which is then subject to a double-anonymize review process.

    On the basis of two reviews the supervising editor can reject the contribution, encourage the author to re-submit to the German Journal of Human Resource Management (possibly with a renewed assessment), return the submission for revision in accordance with the suggestions of the reviewers, or accept the manuscript without revisions.

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.4 Declaration of conflicting interests

    German Journal of Human Resource Management encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    German Journal of Human Resource Management and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    German Journal of Human Resource Management offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    4.4 Reference style

    German Journal of Human Resource Management adheres to the Sage Harvard reference style. View the Sage Harvard guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Harvard EndNote output file.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    German Journal of Human Resource Management is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    All papers must be submitted via the online system. If you would like to discuss your paper prior to submission, please refer to the contact details below.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.


    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the German Journal of Human Resource Management editorial office (see:

    Individual Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, E-access

    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, E-access Plus Backfile (All Online Content)

    Institutional Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, Combined Plus Backfile (Current Volume Print & All Online Content)

    Individual, Single Print Issue

    Student Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional, Single Print Issue