You are here

Interactive Qualitative Analysis

Interactive Qualitative Analysis
A Systems Method for Qualitative Research

April 2004 | 472 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
`Students in qualitative classes often have a difficult time grasping abstract concepts related to data collection, coding, and analysis. One benefit of [this book] is the systematic manner in which all of these take place. This text does a nice job of creating a system of checks and balances for the qualitative researcher' - Justin M Laird, SUNY Brockport

Aimed at helping students unscramble the mysteries of qualitative data collection, coding, and analysis, this book integrates and reconciles theory and methods by showing how to use a systematic, qualitative technique: interactive qualitative analysis.

Prologue: A True Story
1. Paradigm Wars: The Place of IQA
Particles and People : The Relationship of the Observer and the Observed

The Paradox of Representation

Paradigm Wars

A Framework for Discourse

More Than a Laundry List

Revisiting Kuhn

The Problem With Zealots

Discourse and Dialectics

Aristotelian Logic

Aquinas and the Scholastics

The Limitations of Logic

A Dialectical Alternative

The Ideology of IQA

Beliefs and Values Redux

Looking Back and Looking Forward

2. Systems as Representations
In for a Dime, In for a Dollar

Corvettes, Golden Means, and Fibonacci Numbers

Reification, Reality, and Social Construction

Understanding a System

Research Questions and Systems

What Is Research?

Systems Topology

Drivers and Outcomes

Topological Zones

Comparing the Two Models: Ritz Crackers and Coffee Cups

Epistemological Acrobatics: Zooming In, Zooming Out, and Looping

Making Sense of Systems: A Preview of Rationalization

Rigor and the Nature of Qualitative Research

IQA Systems

3. IQA Research Flow
Bricolage or Petit Point?

The Researcher's Footprint

Overview of the IQA Research Flow

Group Realities: IQA Focus Groups

IQA Interviews

IQA Results

4. IQA Research Design: Thinking About the Problem
Where Do I Start?

An Epistemological Dialectic

Synthesis, Not Compromise

Research Design as a System

Touring the System: An Example

Final Reflections

Case Example

5. Group Reality: System Elements
In Debt to TQM

Affinities: The Building Blocks of Mindmaps

Affinities and Variables: A Rough Analogy

The Power of Naming: Constructing Affinities

Designing the Focus Group

Focus Group Facilitation: Preparing to Conduct a Focus Group Exercise

Warm-Up Exercises: Some Variations

Architecture and Warm-Ups: The Same Principles Apply

Brainstorming the Rudiments of Meaning

Facilitator's Role and Functions

Clarification of Meaning

Affinity Analysis: The Logic of Inductive and Axial Coding

Back to the Focus Group

Inductive Coding

Axial Coding

Affinity Descriptions

Facilitation Guidelines: Flags for the Facilitator

Systems and IQA Focus Group Protocols

Case Example

6. Group Reality: System Relationships
Theory of Theoretical Coding

What Is Theoretical Coding?

Issue 1: Level of Detail

Issue 2: Organizing the Focus Group

Issue 3: Creating a Group Composite

Steps and Variations for Focus Group Theoretical Coding

Design Considerations

Focus Groups and Follow-Up Interviews

Focus Group-Only Research

Creating a Group Composite: The IRD

Determining Drivers and Outcomes

Focus Group System Influence Diagram

Protocol for Drawing the SID and Removing Redundant Links


Case Example

7. Individual Reality: The IQA Interview

The Role of Interviews

The Power of the Gods

Data, Analysis, and IQA

Structure and Purpose of the IQA Interview

Procedure for Creating an Interview Protocol

Preparing for the Interview

Logistical and Operational Details

Improvisation Within Structure

Some More Tips for Interviewing


Case Example

8. Individual Reality: System Relationships
Individual and Group Analytics

Individual Interview Coding

Combined Interview Coding

9. Description
IQA Theory and Presentation Format

The IQA Cookbook: A Detailed Outline for the "Typical IQA" Study

Affinities and Researcher Engagement

Turning the Write-Up Crank

Case Example: Research Purpose

Literature Review

Case Example: Literature Review

Methodology Documentation

Describing the Results

Case Example: Describing the Results

Describing Relationships

Case Example: Describing Relationships

Feedback Loops, Zooming, and Naming

Case Example: Feedback Loops, Zooming, and Naming

Turn the Crank Again

10. Interpretation
Representation and Interpretation

Interpreting the Results

Comparing Affinities

Case Example: Compairing Affinities

Comparing Composite Systems

Case Example: Comparing Composite Systems

Describing Individual Variations

Case Example: Describing Individual Variations

Applied Meaning: Forecasts and Interventions

Same Issue, Different Constituencies

Same Constituency, Different Issues: Metacomparisons

Looking Back and Looking to the End

11. Comparisons, Interpretations, and Theories: Some Examples

Case I. Power and Gender: Two Different Worlds

Case II. Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Media Messages

Case III. Principals' Supervision Styles in High- and Low-Performing Schools

Case IV. Education Entrepreneurs: Leaders and Followers

Case V. Rural Community Visioning

Case VI. The Graduate School Experience

Case VII. Text Analysis

About the Authors

"The authors take a ‘user friendly’ systematic approach to qualitative research, something that has long been missing in the field. I consider this to be a groundbreaking work, one that will hit home with students and faculty alike."

Justin M. Laird
SUNY Brockport

“This book does an excellent job of integrating design, methods, and analysis. . . . The real beauty of the book is that it overturns many of the age-old assumptions about how ‘good’ research should be done. . . . The authors’ pleasant and refreshing style, coupled with subtle irreverence for outmoded or constraining paradigms of inquiry, makes for highly enjoyable reading.”

Roger Rennekamp
University of Kentucky

Very comprehensive text, more suitable for postgrad students than UG ones. Good coverage of the paradigm wars, system relationships etc. Quite 'technical' in parts, but uses analogy to aid understanding.

I would recommend as essential, but it may be too detailed for some learners. It's very well written and suitable for learners who really want to get to grips with coding

Ms Vicky du-Caine
Centre for Educational Studies, Hull University
September 4, 2015

Good addition in a mixed method study environment.

Professor Carmen Winter
Technology - Comupter Science, Cooperative State University Baden-Wuerthemberg
January 19, 2016

Chose another book that was easier for students to understand.

Dr Christopher Weiler
Elementary Education Dept, Kutztown University
April 14, 2015

This book suits those who conduct qualitative research. The book firstly introduce the logic of paradigm and then frame the research philosophical stance. Moreover, the content of the book provides various examples with a thorough explanation. It also details the operational details for research designers.

Dr Chavi Chen
IESEG, School of Management, Catholic University of Lille
May 3, 2013

This book is very useful for researcher students, it simplify the methods of analysing qualitative data. I would highly recommend it for the starters in qualitative researches.

Dr Maryam Ba-Break
Nuffield Ctr for Int'l Health & Dev, Leeds University
July 31, 2012

A comprehensive book written to a high academic level. Will be of use to my stronger students.

Dr Liesl Conradie
Department of Social Work (Luton), Bedfordshire University
June 28, 2012

really this book is very good but not for the beginners in this field.
the most important part is interviewing and coding.

Dr George Kodsy
information technology, college applied science
February 22, 2012

For instructors

This book is not available as an inspection copy. For more information contact your local sales representative.

Purchasing options

Please select a format:

ISBN: 9780761928348
ISBN: 9780761928331

SAGE Research Methods is a research methods tool created to help researchers, faculty and students with their research projects. SAGE Research Methods links over 175,000 pages of SAGE’s renowned book, journal and reference content with truly advanced search and discovery tools. Researchers can explore methods concepts to help them design research projects, understand particular methods or identify a new method, conduct their research, and write up their findings. Since SAGE Research Methods focuses on methodology rather than disciplines, it can be used across the social sciences, health sciences, and more.

With SAGE Research Methods, researchers can explore their chosen method across the depth and breadth of content, expanding or refining their search as needed; read online, print, or email full-text content; utilize suggested related methods and links to related authors from SAGE Research Methods' robust library and unique features; and even share their own collections of content through Methods Lists. SAGE Research Methods contains content from over 720 books, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and handbooks, the entire “Little Green Book,” and "Little Blue Book” series, two Major Works collating a selection of journal articles, and specially commissioned videos.