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Introduction to Corrections - Interactive eBook

Introduction to Corrections - Interactive eBook

Third Edition

January 2019 | SAGE Publications, Inc

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Chapter 1: Early History of Punishment and the Development of Prisons in the United States
Defining Corrections: A Variety of Possibilities

The Notion of Punishment and Corrections Throughout History

The Enlightenment and Correctional Reform

Punishment During Early American History: 1700s–1800s

The Age of the Reformatory in America

Prisons in America: 1900s to the End of World War II

Modern Day Systems: Federal and State Inmate Characteristics

Chapter 2: Ideological and Theoretical Underpinnings to Sentencing and Correctional Policy

Philosophical Underpinnings

Types of Sanctions

Sentencing Models

Criminological Theories and Corrections

Chapter 3: Correctional Law and Legal Liabilities

The Hands-Off Doctrine

The Emergence of Inmate Rights

Corrections and the Constitution

A Restrained Hands-On Perspective and Court Deference to Prisons

State and Federal Legal Liabilities

Compliance With Judicial Orders

Chapter 4: Jail and Detention Facilities

Jails in the Past

The Modern Jail

Jails as Short-Term Institutions

Jails as Long-Term Facilities

Health Care in Jails

Jail Training Standards

Specialized Types of Jail Sentences

Special Issues in Jails

Chapter 5: Probation

A Brief History of Probation

Contemporary Probation: When the Jail Is Full

Characteristics of Probationers

The Administration of Probation

Probation Officers

Probation Revocation

Chapter 6: Intermediate Sanctions

Types of Intermediate Sanctions

Methods of Ensuring Compliance

Intermediate Sanctions in Different States

Chapter 7: Facility Design to Meet Security and Programming Needs

Prison Facility Designs Throughout History

The Rise of the Supermax

Accommodations for Inmates With Disabilities

Innovative Security Designs

Internal Security

Auxiliary Services and Physical Security

Technology Systems in Prisons

Chapter 8: Classification and Custody Levels

History of Classification

Rationale for Classification

The Goals of Classification Systems

Elements of All Classification Systems

Special Housing Assignments

Chapter 9: Prison Subculture and Prison Gang Influence

Theories of Prison Subculture

The Inmate Subculture of Modern Times

The Impact of the Inmate Subculture on Corrections Staff

Scenario 1

Scenario 2


The Guard Subculture

The Impact of Gangs Upon Prison Subculture

Major Prison Gangs in the United States

Chapter 10: Immigration Detention Centers Deciding to Stay or Go

A History of Competing & Contradictory Objectives to Immigration Control

Current Organization & Implementation of Immigration Control

Special Insert 10.1: The 38 National Detention Standards

The Mission of the ERO

The Structure of the ERO and Detention Facilities

The ERO Classification System

Jails and Immigration Detention

Budgeting for ICE: Notable Concerns

Lobbying and Big Money for Private Prison Companies

Civil Rights Violations in Immigration Detention Facilities

Detention Facility Housing Conditions

Failure to Uphold Legal Requirements

Chapter 11: Female Offenders in Correctional Systems

Female Offenders Behind Bars: A Detailed Look at Percentages and Rates

Rates of Women Held in State Prisons, in Local Jails, or on Community Supervision

History of Women Behind Bars

Women’s Reformatories in the Early Twentieth Century: A Feminist Perspective

Issues Related to the Modern-Day Female Offender Population

Considerations for Female Offenders

Conditions of Care for Female Offenders

Female Offenders and Treatment Implications

Chapter 12: Specialized Inmate Populations

Administrative Considerations

Prison Subculture and Special Needs Offenders

Mentally Ill Offenders

Sex Offenders

HIV/AIDS-Related Offenders

Elderly Offenders

Chapter 13: Juvenile Correctional Systems

History of Juvenile Corrections

Legal Precepts and Orientation of the Juvenile Justice System

Screening and Classification of Juvenile Offenders

Commonality of Juvenile as Victim of Prior Abuse

Female Juveniles in Custody

Juvenile Gang Members

Detention Versus Incarceration

Incarceration of Juveniles

Chapter 14: Correctional Administration

Federal Bureau of Prisons Administration

Regional Offices and Jurisdictions

Correctional System Administration

Levels of Prison Management

Styles of Management

Management Versus Leadership

Women in Correctional Management

The Corrections Workforce

Emergency Management

Chapter 15: Prison Programming

Medical Care

Food Service

Educational Programs

Prison Work Programs

Drug Treatment Programs

Recreational Programs

Religious Programs

Chapter 16: Parole and Reintegration

Parole and Parolee Characteristics

The Beginning History of Parole

Parole at the State Level

Parole as the Correctional Release Valve for Prisons

The Role of Institutional Parole Officers

Common Conditions of Parole

Reentry Initiatives

The Use of Reentry Councils

Violations of Parole, Parole Warrants, and Parole Revocation Proceedings

Chapter 17: The Death Penalty

Constitutionality of the Death Penalty

Death Row Statistics

Methods of Execution

Arguments For and Against the Death Penalty

Brutalization Hypothesis

Correctional Aspects of the Death Penalty

Chapter 18: Program Evaluation, Evidence-Based Practices, and Future Trends in Corrections

Evaluation Research

Evidence-Based Practice

The Future of Corrections


For instructors