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Introduction to Criminology
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Introduction to Criminology
Why Do They Do It?

Second Edition
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February 2017 | 616 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Introduction to Criminology: Why Do They Do It?, Second Edition offers a contemporary and integrated discussion of the key theories that help us understand crime in the 21st century. With a focus on why offenders commit crimes, this bestseller skillfully engages students with real-world cases and examples to help students explore the fundamentals of criminology. To better align with how instructors actually teach this course, coverage of violent and property crimes has been integrated into the theory chapters, so students can clearly understand the application of theory to criminal behavior.
   
Unlike other introductory criminology textbooks, the Second Edition discusses issues of diversity in each chapter and covers
many contemporary topics that are not well represented in other texts, such as feminist criminology, cybercrime, hate crimes, white-collar crime, homeland security, and identity theft. Transnational comparisons regarding crime rates and the methods other countries use to deal with crime make this edition the most universal to date and a perfect companion for those wanting to learn about criminology in context.

 


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Available via the Interactive eBook, SAGE Premium Video is tied to learning objectives and curated and produced exclusively for this text. SAGE Premium Video brings concepts to life and appeals to different learning styles, featuring SAGE-original video including interviews, personal stories, crime profiles, author discussions, and other clips that bring deeper, more applied understanding of criminology.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Criminology
Introduction

 
Key Concepts to Understanding Criminology

 
The Criminal Justice System

 
Criminology Theory

 
Victimology

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 2: Measuring Crime
Introduction

 
Crime Data From Law Enforcement Agencies

 
Crime Data from Victims of Crime: The National Crime Victimization Survey

 
Crime Data from Self-Report Surveys

 
Additional Approaches to Collecting Crime Data

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web resources

 
 
Chapter 3: Classical School of Criminology Thought
Introduction

 
Pre-Classical Perspectives of Crime and Punishment

 
The Age of Enlightenment

 
The Classical School of Criminology

 
Impact of Beccaria’s Work on Other Theorists

 
The Neoclassical School of Criminology

 
Loss of Dominance of Classical/ Neoclassical Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 3

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 4: Contemporary Classical and Deterrence Research
Introduction

 
Rebirth of Deterrence Theory and Contemporary Research

 
Rational Choice Theory

 
Routine Activities Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 4

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 5: Early Positivism
Introduction

 
Early Biological Theories of Behavior

 
Physiognomy

 
Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminals

 
AFTER Lombroso: The IQ-Testing Era

 
Body Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping

 
Policy Implications

 
Case Study Revisited: Javier

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 5

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 6: Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior
Introduction

 
Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

 
Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

 
Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

 
Brain Injuries

 
Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

 
Biosocial Approaches Toward Explaining Criminal Behavior

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 6

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 7: Psychological/ Trait Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Early Psychological Theorizing Regarding Criminal Behavior

 
John Bowlby: Attachment Theory

 
Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 7

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 8: Social Structure Theories of Crime I
Introduction

 
Early Theories of Social Structure: Early to Late 1800s

 
Durkheim and the Concept of Anomie

 
Merton’s Strain Theory

 
Variations of Merton’s Strain Theory

 
General Strain Theory

 
Summary of Strain Theories

 
Policy Implications of Strain Theory

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 8

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 9: Social Structure Theories of Crime II
Introduction

 
The Ecological School and the Chicago School of Criminology

 
Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Social Disorganization

 
Cultural and Subcultural Theories of Crime

 
Criticisms of Cultural Theories of Crime

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 9

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
Key Terms

 
 
Chapter 10: Social Process and Control Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Learning Theories

 
Differential Reinforcement Theory

 
Psychological Learning Models

 
Neutralization Theory

 
Control Theories

 
Early Control Theories of Human Behavior

 
Early Control Theories of Crime

 
Modern Social Control Theories

 
Integrated Social Control Theories

 
A General Theory of Crime: Low Self-Control

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 10

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 11: Labeling Theory and Conflict/Marxist/ Radical Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Labeling Theory

 
Foundation of Labeling Theory

 
Evaluating Labeling Theory

 
Conflict Perspectives

 
The Conservative (Pluralist) Conflict Perspectives

 
The Radical Conflict Perspectives

 
Additional Explanations of Crime Using a Marxist Framework

 
Evaluating Conflict Theories

 
Additional Critical Theories

 
Policies Related to Labeling and Conflict Theories of Crime

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 11

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 12: Feminist Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Feminist Perspectives on Gender

 
Traditional Theories of Female Crime

 
Feminist Critiques of Previous Research Studying Women and Crime

 
Liberation Thesis

 
Power-Control Theory

 
Feminist Perspectives on Understanding Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
Critiques of Feminist Theories

 
Policies Based on Feminist Theories of Crime

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 12

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 13: Developmental/ Life-Course Perspectives criminality
Basic Concepts and Early Developmental Theory

 
Antidevelopmental Theory: Low Self-Control Theory

 
Modern Developmental/Life-Course Perspectives

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Theories in Chapter 13

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 14: White-Collar Crime, Organized Crime, and Cybercrime
Introduction

 
What is White-Collar Crime?

 
Definitions and History of White-Collar Crime

 
Incidence and Impact of White-Collar Crime on Society

 
Types of White-Collar Crime

 
Theoretical Explanations of White-Collar Crime

 
What is Organized Crime?

 
Criminal Justice Responses to Organized Crime

 
What is Cybercrime?

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 15: Hate Crimes, Terrorism, and Home land Security
Introduction

 
What Is a Hate Crime?

 
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994

 
Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996

 
Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997

 
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009

 
Model State Legislation: Hate Crimes/ Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness

 
Multicide

 
School Attacks

 
Disparity in Rates of Committing Multicide Across Race and Religious Ideology

 
What Is Terrorism?

 
Financial Support

 
Influence of the Media

 
Domestic Terrorism

 
What Is Homeland Security?

 
Definition of Homeland Security

 
Homeland Security Organizational Network

 
Bureaucratic Problems and Solutions

 
Issues Related to Civil Liberties

 
Human Rights

 
The Constitution

 
Policy Implications

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Chapter 16: Drugs and Crime
Introduction

 
Commonly Abused Drugs

 
Trends of Drug Use

 
The Drug-Crime Link

 
Modern Policies Related to Reducing Drug Use

 
Recommendations for Future Policies

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Web Resources

 
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
  • SAGE premium video is included in the interactive eBook, featuring candid interviews with former offenders as well as author-led discussions on learning tips and “weird crimes”. These unique videos connect criminological theories to real-life stories that students will remember.
  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available, containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
  • Lively and stimulating class assignments to reinforce active learning. The assignments apply to individual or group projects.
  • Video, audio, and website links which appeals to students with different learning styles
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
Student Study Site
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching has never been easier!

SAGE edge for Students
 provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.
  • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Video, audio, and website links which appeals to students with different learning styles
  • Chapter outlines summarize key concepts in each chapter to help you prepare for quizzes and exams. EXCLUSIVE! access to SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.

 “In depth coverage of theories, much more thorough than many of the other ‘Intro’ books out there in terms of theory coverage.”

Dan Dexheimer
San Jose State University

“It is comprehensive and well-organized. The features such as Case Study and Why Do They Do It? add much to the material. The videos and other links help students receive the same information from different mediums.”

Terri L. Earnest
University of Texas at San Antonio

“Clear and easy to understand. Excellent examples with visuals…”

Shanell Sanchez-Smith
Colorado Mesa University

“Right level of difficulty for upper-division, general students. Not too simplistic but not just for CJ majors…”

Bradley Wright
University of Connecticut

“The book is well written, in a clear and direct manner. Complex theories and ideas are presented in a very clear, linear, fashion…Excellent visuals (charts, tables, pictures).”

Christopher Salvatore, PhD
Montclair State University

For instructors

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