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Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies

Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies

Published in Association with Midwest Academy of Management

eISSN: 19397089 | ISSN: 15480518 | Current volume: 31 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly
The purpose of JLOS is to publish research aimed at helping us understand and predict effective leadership – leadership of people, groups, and organizations. JLOS continuously renews and reinvigorates leadership scholarship, practice and policy by promoting forward thinking scholarship. While leadership in organizations can be informal, it occurs in the context of people holding and acting within the scope of formal positions of management. Thus we seek to advance research that has clear functional value to managers and leaders across organizations and cultures. JLOS serves to promote scholarship that asks and/or seeks answers to grand questions, embraces paradox, addresses key fissures in scholarly and practical knowledge, and that challenges traditions, paradigms, and the status quo to create jolts and discontinuous growth in the learning curve of the field of leadership and management.

JLOS publishes impactful, unique, and creative research findings derived from testing theory-driven hypothesis through strong methodologies, while also publishing impactful theory development and cutting-edge application articles that advance the canon of knowledge on leadership and its interrelationships with other organizational phenomenon. JLOS seeks to break paradigms and encourage creative approaches to conceptualizing, measuring, and assessing leadership. For empirical articles, the journal encourages a wide variety of sound methods, whether quantitative, qualitative, neuroscience, physiological testing, experience sampling, observational studies, or other methods.

JLOS is less concerned that any one article has “the answer,” as impactful leadership research can equally make great contributions by raising key questions for future research – such as why a particular set of results occurred, or how our results would change in different contexts or under different contingencies. We are far more interested in great ideas, with practical impact for those who practice management and leadership than in publishing studies with “expected” results. In sum, research – especially well conducted research with important practical implications – is messy and we encourage research in which exploration and discovery are as important as results.

Leadership is also too often studied context-free, while in practice leadership occurs in the presence of a multitude of contextual factors and formal authority structures. JLOS thus is interested in scholarship in which researchers have embedded their work into a relevant context, and that not only offers practical implications, but has implications that are clear and valuable to those who practice leadership and management in non-profit, governmental, business and other work organizations. Further, leadership doesn’t occur in a vacuum, but while individuals lead others to perform discrete functions and to pursue specified goals and objectives. Leaders, for example, don’t just motivate followers, but motivate them to do something – something important to the team, organization, etc. Yet many tested models do not account for such factors. JLOS seeks articles that link leadership with its functional demands and outcomes. This in part may entail linking leadership in meaningful ways to organizational goals, functions, and performance pursuits, to practices in organizations such as entrepreneurship, strategy/strategic thinking, operations, and human resources, or to professions such as health care/medicine, financial management, etc. To achieve these goals, JLOS recognizes that applying context to the study of leadership can be in tension with a paper’s level of generalizability. JLOS recognizes this tradeoff and will support authors who seek to achieve balance. Such important inquiry may also need to span or combine micro-, meso-, and macro-level research.

Further, JLOS seeks articles that are forward-looking and that link leadership to emerging phenomenon such as big data, the sharing economy, and machine learning. Finally, JLOS encourages work that recognizes the global nature of the world, including international research and cross-cultural studies as they relate to leadership and its intersections with organizational studies.

Editor in Chief
Sean Hannah Wake Forest University, USA
Senior Editor
Bruce J. Avolio University of Washington, USA
Tim Judge Ohio State University, USA
John Schaubroeck University of Missouri, USA
Daan van Knippenberg Rice University, USA
David Waldman Arizona State University, USA
Associate Editors
Min Carter Southern Illinois University, USA
Lisa Dragoni Wake Forest University, USA
Benjamin Galvin BYU Marriott, USA
Chad Hartnell Georgia State University, USA
Nathan Hiller Florida International University, USA
Stephanie Johnson Rice University, USA
Jim Lemoine University of Buffalo, USA
Hannes Leroy Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
Michael Palanski Rochester Institute of Technology, USA
Ann Chunyan Peng University of Missouri, Columbia, USA
Ron Piccolo University of Central Florida, USA
Ron Riggio Claremont McKenna College, USA
Daan Stam Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
Barbara Wisse Durham University, UK
Editorial Board
Mahfooz Ansari University of Lethbridge, Canada
James Avey Central Washington University, USA
Kathryn Bartol University of Maryland, USA
Terry Beehr Central Michigan University, USA
Yair Berson McMaster University, Canada
Diana Bilimoria Case Western Reserve University, USA
Dustin Bluhm University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, USA
Kimberley Breevaart Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
Michael Edward Brown Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, USA
Heike Bruch University of Saint Gallen, Switzerland
Claudia Buengeler Kiel University, Germany
Kim Cameron University of Michigan, USA
Sankalp Chaturvedi Imperial College Business School,UK
Joanne Ciulla Rutgers University Newark Business School, USA
Jarle Eid Universitetet i Bergen, Norway
B. Parker Ellen III Northeastern University, USA
Gerald Ferris Florida State University, USA
Robert Ford University of Central Florida, USA
Brooke Gazdag Kuehne Logistics University, Germany
Megan Gerhardt Miami University, USA
Fabiola Gerpott WHU Otto Beisheim School of Management, Germany
Cristina Gibson Pepperdine University Graziadio School of Business and Management, USA
Steffen Giessner Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Netherlands
Nicole Gillespie University of Queensland, Australia
Regina Greenwood Nova Southeastern University, USA
Michelle Hammond Oakland University, USA
Paul Harvey University of New Hampshire, USA
Morela Hernandez University of Virginia, USA
Jasmine Hu The Ohio State University, USA
Lei Huang Auburn University, USA
Xu Huang Hong Kong University, China
Ronald Humphrey Lancaster University, UK
Ronit Kark Bar-Ilan University Department of Psychology, Israel
Robert T. Keller University of Houston, USA
E . Kelloway Saint Mary's University, USA
Maribeth Kuenzi Southern Methodist University, USA
Christina M. Lam City University of Hong Kong, China
Klodiana Lanaj University of Florida, USA
Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester San Jose State University, USA
Paul B. Lester Naval Postgraduate School, USA
Jianwen (Jon) Liao Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business, China
Robert Liden Illinois State University, USA
Manuel London State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
Kevin B. Lowe The University of Sydney Business School, Australia
Mark Martinko Florida A&M University, USA
Todd J. Maurer Georgia State University, USA
John W. Michel Loyola University Maryland, USA
Ivana Milosevic College of Charleston School of Business and Economics, USA
Ella Miron-Spektor INSEAD, France
Tyree Mitchell Louisiana State University, USA
Jeffrey Muldoon Emporia State University, USA
Susan Murphy University of Edinburgh Business School, UK
Craig Pearce Penn State University, School of Labor and Employment Relations, USA
Michael Peters Baker College Center for Graduate Studies, USA
Suzanne Peterson Arizona State University, USA
Jennifer Petriglieri INSEAD, France
Radostina Purvanova Drake University, USA
Christian Resick Drexel University, USA
Shanggeun Rhee Kean University, USA
Antje Schmitt University of Groningen, Netherlands
Gerard Seijts Western University, USA
Sim Sitkin Duke University, USA
John Sosik Penn State Great Valley, USA
John Sumanth Wake Forest University, USA
Darren Treadway Niagara University, USA
Dusya Vera The University of Houston, USA
Frank Walter Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Danni Wang Rutgers University, USA
Peng Wang Miami University, Ohio, USA
Zhen Wang Central University of Finance and Economics, China
Sandy Wayne University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Cindy Wu Baylor University, USA
Jun “Michelle” Yang University of North Carolina, USA
Stephen Zaccaro George Mason University, USA
Yiwen Zhang The Hong Kong University, Hong Kong
Zhen Zhang Arizona State University, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROSPECTIVE AUTHORS

    Before submission, review the Journal Description and Aims and Scope statements posted to the JLOS website and ensure that your paper is compatible with and fits within the journal’s aims and scope. Foremost, if a paper does not have ample focus on leadership phenomenon, it will be desk rejected and returned to the authors.


    All papers submitted must follow the style of the American Psychological Association in terms of headings, referencing, etc., and all papers must be submitted in a single file with all tables and figures merged with the main document, except in those rare cases when a figure is in a file format that cannot be merged.


    Manuscripts submitted for publication consideration should be typed on a standard size paper (8.5 by 11) and should be double-spaced throughout. These manuscripts should include a title page that includes the title of the article and appropriate contact information for the author. The second page should repeat the title of the article and include a brief (150-250 word) abstract. We recognize and understand that sometimes length of the article does not reflect value or content. There is, therefore, no minimum length. However, complete manuscripts (including references and all tables and figures) normally should not exceed 45 pages in length, and yet will also be looked at based on a contribution-to-length ratio. Please submit your article through the Sage Publications website, . Click on the "SageTRACK" link or visit to begin the submission process.

    All authors must include a cover letter with their submissions that includes the required statements:

    • Highlight in 1-3 sentences what the key contributions of the paper are.
    • Sate whether any portions of the data have been or will be used in other accepted or published, under review, or planned papers
    • For empirical papers, states whether the study was approved by an institutional review board for human subjects research
    • States whether the paper, or a version of it, was previously submitted to JLOS
    • Confirms the paper is not currently under review at any other journals


    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.


    Manuscripts receive a screening review for appropriateness and then at least two reviews in the process. Authors will receive acknowledgement of receipt of manuscripts and will (under normal circumstances) be notified within 60 days of the results of the review. If reviewers recommend revision, authors will receive a copy of suggested changes and a timeline for re-submission of their manuscripts.


    The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies assumes the following (and the author affirms): At time of acceptance and before publication, authors will sign a copyright release form to JLOS. Authors have made every effort to ensure accuracy of documentation. Manuscripts submitted for consideration are not under concurrent review with any other journals or publications and has not been previously published in any form. Generally accepted ethical standards of conduct have been met in the research and/or preparation of the manuscript submitted for publication. The author has submitted original work so that the publication of the manuscript would not violate any copyright or other personal or proprietary rights of others, and the author will inform the Editor of any portions of the manuscript, including the underlying data, that have been previously published. Authors have made every attempt to use nondiscriminatory language.


    Manuscripts should be prepared using the current edition of the APA Manual. All pages must be typed, double-spaced (including references, footnotes, and endnotes). Text must be in 12-point Times Roman. Block quotes may be single-spaced. Must include margins of 1inch on all the four sides and number all pages sequentially.

    The manuscript should include four major sections(in this order): Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

    Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order): (1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Keywords, (4) Text, (5) Notes, (6) References, (7) Tables, (8) Figures, and (9) Appendices.

    1. Title page. Please include the following:

    • Full article title
    • Acknowledgments and credits
    • Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)
    • Grant numbers and/or funding information
    • Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)

    2. Abstract. Print the abstract (150 to 250 words) on a separate page headed by the full article title. Omit author(s)’s names.

    3. Text. Begin article text on a new page headed by the full article title.

    a. Headings and subheadings. Subheadings should indicate the organization of the content of the manuscript. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text. Level 1 heading should be Centered, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase, Level 2 heading should be Flush Left, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase, Level 3 heading should be Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period, Level 4 heading should be Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period, and Level 5 heading should be Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period.

    b. Citations. For each text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year. Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information, author(s) and year of publication. Following are some examples of text citations:

    (i)Unknown Author: To cite worksthatdo not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Eg. The findings are based on the study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using XXX," 2001)

    (ii) Authors with the Same Last Name: use first initials with the last names to prevent confusion. Eg.(L. Hughes, 2001; P. Hughes, 1998)

    (iii) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: For two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. The lower-case letters should follow the year in the in-text citation.Eg.Research by Freud (1981a) illustrated that…

    (iv) Personal Communication: For letters, e-mails, interviews,and other person-to-person communication, citation should include the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.Eg.(E. Clark, personal communication, January 4, 2009).

    (v) Unknown Author and Unknown Date: For citations with no author or date, use the title in the signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").Eg. The study conducted by of students and research division discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

    5. Notes. If explanatory notes are required for your manuscript, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. The Footnotes should be added at the bottom of the page after the references. The word “Footnotes” should be centered at the top of the page.

    6. References. Basic rules for the reference list:

    • The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names.
    • If there is more than one work by the same author, order them according to their publication date – oldest to newest (therefore a 2008 publication would appear before a 2009 publication).
    • When listing multiple authors of a source use “&” instead of “and”.
    • Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there are one, and any proper names – i. e. only those words that are normally capitalized.
    • Italicize the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document.
    • Manuscripts submitted to JLOS should strictly follow the current APA Manual.
    • Every citation in text must have the detailed reference in the Reference section.
    • Every reference listed in the Reference section must be cited in text.
    • Do not use “et al.” in the Reference list at the end; names of all authors of a publication should be listed there.

    Here are a few examples of commonly found references. For more examples please check the current edition of the APA manual.


    Book with place of publication--Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

    Book with editors & edition-- Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.

    Book with author & publisher are the same-- MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author.

    Chapter in an edited book--Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley& T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280). Malden, MA: Blackwell.


    Journal article with more than one author (print)--Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.

    Journal article – 8 or more authors-- Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from

    Internet Sources:

    Internet – no author, no date--Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from htttp://

    Internet – Organisation / Corporate author-- SPCA New Zealand. (2011). Your dog may be dying from the heat [Press release]. Retrieved from

    • Examples of various types of information sources:

    Act (statute / legislation)--Copyright Act 1994. (2011, October 7). Retrieved from

    Blog post-- Liz and Ellory. (2011, January 19). The day of dread(s) [Web log post]. Retrieved from

    Brochure / pamphlet (no author)--Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

    Conference Paper--Williams, J., &Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.

    DVD / Video / Motion Picture (including Clickview&Youtube)--Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), &Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. New Zealand: Transmission.

    Magazine--Ng, A. (2011, October-December). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87.

    Newspaper article (no author)--Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5

    Podcast (audio or video)--Rozaieski, B. (2011). Logan cabinet shoppe: Episode 37: Entertainment center molding [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

    Software (including apps--UBM Medica.(2010). iMIMS (Version1.2.0) [Mobile application software].Retrieved from

    Television programme--Flanagan, A., &Philipson, A. (Series producers & directors).(2011). 24 hours in A & E [Television series]. Belfast, Ireland: Channel 4.

    Thesis (print)--Smith, T. L. (2008). Change, choice and difference: The case of RN to BN degree programmes for registered nurses (Master’s thesis). Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

    Thesis (online)--Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from

    Non- English reference book, title translated in English

    Real Academia Espanola. (2001). Diccionario de la lenguaespanola [Dictionary of the Spanish Language] (22nded.). Madrid, Spain: Author

    IMPORTANT NOTE: To encourage a faster production process of your article, you are requested to closely adhere to the points above for references. Otherwise, it will entail a long process of solving copyeditor’s queries and may directly affect the publication time of your article. In case of any question, please contact the journal editor at mailto:

    7. Tables. They should be structured properly. Each table must have a clear and concise title. When appropriate, use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically.Eg.Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC).Headings should be clear and brief.

    8. Figures. They should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. The figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission.

    IMPORTANT: PERMISSION- The author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in (journal acronym). A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

    9. Appendices. They should be lettered to distinguish from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”).Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices.

    Note for authors whose primary language is other than English:
    Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company. We highlight some of these companies at

    Please be aware that Sage has no affiliation with these companies and makes no endorsement of them. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.


    All articles and materials printed in the Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies are copyrighted by JLOS and Sage Publications. Permission requests to reprint any materials from the Journal must be sent to Sage Publications. Although Contributors have retained the copyright in the Contribution, Contributors have granted Sage an exclusive license to exercise the rights under copyright.

    Sage Choice

    If you or your funder wishes your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.


    All authors must provide an e-mail address to facilitate communications with JLOS.


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