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Journal of South Asian Development

Journal of South Asian Development

eISSN: 09731733 | ISSN: 09731741 | Current volume: 18 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: 3 Times/Year

The Journal of South Asian Development is a refereed multi-disciplinary social science journal bringing out three issues per year. JSAD publishes original research articles, book reviews and scholarly commentary relating to all facets of development in South Asia.

The journal carries empirical studies as well as theoretical and conceptual articles covering contemporary development issues in the region, from diverse disciplinary perspectives including economics, political science, sociology, socio-cultural anthropology, as well as interdisciplinary areas such as development studies, gender studies and migration studies. Geographically, JSAD covers the seven states of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives) plus Afghanistan.

Electronic Access:

Journal of South Asian Development is available electronically on Sage Journals Online at

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Journal of South Asian Development (JSAD) is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers based on original research pertaining to any aspect of development in the South Asian region (comprising of Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives, as well as Afghanistan). We invite papers focusing on the economic, social or political dimensions of development in South Asia. We welcome a diversity of theoretical and disciplinary perspectives, analytical frameworks and methodological approaches, and value interdisciplinary and comparative research. JSAD engages a wide readership across the social sciences, both in South Asia and globally, including researchers, practitioners, policymakers, the media and others.

Contributions are welcomed from economists, sociologists, political scientists, social geographers, development studies scholars, and other social scientists committed to the study and analysis of development issues in the South Asia region. Within this broad field, we are particularly interested in receiving research articles on:

- economic growth, institutions, state capacity, structural reforms, structural transformation, factors of growth, firms, households
- business cycle fluctuations, stabilisation policies – monetary, fiscal, financial 
- open economy macroeconomics, international trade
- governance: public policy, civil society, social protection and welfare
- political economy and ecology of development: environment, climate change, dispossession, displacement, social and environmental justice
- poverty and inequality: marginalization, social mobility, health, nutrition, food security
- labour and education: skill development, employment, informality, migration
- information, communication and digital technologies (ICDTs) and development
- development theory, policy and practice

Indraneel Dasgupta Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata
Sabyasachi Kar Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi, India
Kenneth Bo Nielsen University of Oslo, Norway
Rajeswari Sengupta Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai, India
Carol Upadhya National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru, India
Book Review Editor
Lipika Kamra Queen Mary University of London, UK
Associate Editors
Tanika Chakraborty Indian Institute Of Management–Calcutta, India
Priya Deshingkar University of Sussex, UK
Taniya Ghosh Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India
Amanda Gilbertson University of Melbourne, Australia
Farzana Haniffa Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Shareen Joshi Georgetown University, USA
Nida Kirmani School of Humanities and Social Sciences, LUMS
Kanika Mahajan Ashoka University, Haryana, India
Rajesh Raj Natarajan Associate Professor in Economics, Sikkim University, India
Patrik Oskarsson Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Selim Raihan University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Indrajit Roy University of York, UK
Anirudh Shingal S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research (SPJIMR), Mumbai, India
Aparna Sundar University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Raphael Susewind King's College, London, UK
Chinmay Tumbe IIM Ahmedabad, India
Parag Waknis Ambedkar University, Delhi, India
Editorial Board Members
Bina Agarwal University of Manchester, UK
Amita Baviskar Ashoka University, India
Sonalde Desai University of Maryland, USA
Rajat Ganguly Murdoch University, Australia
Katy Gardner London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Barbara Harriss-White Oxford University, UK
Vegard Iversen University of Greenwich, UK
Ravi Kanbur Cornell University, USA
Khalid Nadvi University of Manchester, UK
Geert De Neve University of Sussex, UK
Kunal Sen UNU-WIDER, Finland
Ashutosh Varshney Brown University, USA
Arjan Verschoor University of East Anglia, UK
Dushni Weerakoon Institute of Policy Studies, Sri Lanka
Andrew Wyatt University of Bristol, UK
  • Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC)
  • Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS)
  • CABELLS Journalytics
  • CCC
  • Clarivate Analytics: Social Science Citation Index (SSCI)
  • DeepDyve
  • Dutch-KB
  • EconLit
  • Indian Citation Index (ICI)
  • J-Gate
  • OCLC
  • Ohio
  • Portico
  • ProQuest-Illustrata
  • ProQuest: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
  • Research Papers in Economics (RePEc)
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. However, we expect contributions as per aims & scope specified by the journal.

    JSAD is a multi-disciplinary journal with limited number of volumes and papers published in a year. One of our major objectives is to provide adequate space to papers from different social sciences and humanities as well as contributors from different parts of South Asia and the world. In view of these objectives and in order to give a chance to as many contributors as possible, we would like to discourage multiple papers from the same author contemporaneously. Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Journal of South Asian Development will be reviewed.

    The corresponding author will receive a link for the copyright form once a contribution is accepted for publication. The submission will be considered as final once the author submits the copyright form.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. 

    Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that Journal of South Asian Development will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper to a preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If your paper is accepted, you will need to contact the preprint server to ensure the final published article link is attached to your preprint. Learn more about our preprint policy here.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal.

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper
    1.3.1 Making your article discoverable

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements

    2.3.1 Writing assistance
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    2.7 Clinical trials
    2.8 Reporting guidelines
    2.9 Research data

    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.1.1 Plagiarism
    3.1.2 Prior publication

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting 
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Identifiable information
    4.4 Supplemental material
    4.5 Reference style

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 ORCID
    5.2 Information required for completing your submission
    5.3 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to International Journal of Clinical Metabolism and Diabetes, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    Guidelines for Research Articles
    Submitted manuscripts must fall within one or several of the research areas listed under Aims and Scope and ideally should combine theory with empirical data and analysis. Papers may focus on one or several countries of South Asia or the entire South Asian region. Papers that compare South Asian countries/region with other countries/regions are also welcome. 

    Research articles should be no longer than 10,000 words in length (including notes and references). All articles must be accompanied by an abstract of 200 words, approximately five keywords, and the full institutional affiliation, postal and email addresses and brief profile of the author/s. In case there are two or more authors, the corresponding author’s name and address details must be clearly specified on the title page. 

    Guidelines for Perspective (Invitation only)
    A Perspective piece is intended to provide an outlet for short treatments of an emerging topic or debate of significance and interest to contemporary development in South Asia. The piece should be relevant for a major region or a country in South Asia or for the entire South Asian region. A Perspective piece can be one of the following:

    • synthesis of a current debate
    • an overview of an emergent issue in development
    • a reflection on a current issue based on professional experience (for a development practitioner)

    Perspectives should be between 2000 and 3000 words in length, including references, notes and technical material (which should be kept to a minimum). The goal is to produce a readable, accessible, and brief contribution.

    Submissions to the Perspective section are only by invitation from the JSAD Co-editors. However, after receiving recommendation the manuscript needs to be submitted through Sage Track Sage.

    Guidelines for Book Reviews
    JSAD publishes reviews of books on all aspects of development in South Asia. Individual authors or publishers interested in having their books reviewed in the JSAD should write to the Book Review Editor, Lipika Kamra (University of Birmingham, UK) at:

    Those interested in reviewing for JSAD may also reach out to the Book Review Editor with their suggestion. Please note that unsolicited book reviews submitted online will not be considered.

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    1.3 Writing your paper

    Visit the Sage Author Gateway for general advice on how to get published, plus links to further resources. 
    Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance your article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. 
    Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.
    • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.
    • The author has recommended the reviewer.
    • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

    The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. Journal of South Asian Development utilizes a double-anonymised peer review process in which the reviewer and authors’ names and information are withheld from the other. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor who then makes the final decision.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the Journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    Special issue manuscripts are sent to Guest Editors upon submission to ensure they meet the scope of the special issue. The rest of the peer review process will be handled by Journal of South Asian Development 's internal editorial team. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor who then makes the final decision.

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    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

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    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support. 

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    As per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance
    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding 

    Journal of South Asian Development requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding. 

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    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Journal of South Asian Development encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

    It is the policy of Journal of South Asian Development to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. 

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

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    2.6. Research data

    The Journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • Share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • Include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, use the statement to confirm why it cannot be shared.
    • Cite this data in your research

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    3.Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway 

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Journal of South Asian Development and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication
    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

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    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

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    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Journal of South Asian Development offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Read and Publish agreements, where authors at participating institutions can publish open access with fees paid by the institution. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    1. The preferred format for your manuscript is Microsoft Word.
    2. All articles should be typed on one side of the paper (preferably A4) and double-spaced throughout (not only the text but also displayed quotations, notes, references and any other matter).
    3. Notes should be numbered serially and presented at the end of the article. Notes must contain more than a mere reference. 
    4. British spellings be used throughout; universal ‘z’ in ‘-ize’ and ‘-ization’ words.
    5.  Use single quotes throughout. Double quotes only used within single quotes. Spellings of words in quotations should not be changed. Quotations of 45 words or more should be separated from the text and indented with one space with a line space above and below. When directly quoting from a work, include the page number in the citation.
    6.  Spell out numbers from one to nine, 10 and above to remain in figures. However, for exact measurements use only figures (3 km, 9 per cent not %). Use international number system (i.e., thousands, millions, billions, etc.).
    7.  When referring to a century use words, e.g., ‘twentieth century’ and when reference is being made to a decade use numbers, e.g., ‘1980s’.
    8.  Permissions and Releases: Material taken directly from a copyrighted source should be clearly identified, and the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce it must be submitted in a separate file. Obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted material is the author’s responsibility, as is payment of any fees the copyright holder may request.
    9.  Tables and figures to be indicated by number (e.g., see Table 1), not by placement (e.g., see Table below). Short and crisp titles and headings in tables and figures are preferred. The units of measurement should be stated and the sources must be cited at the foot of the table. Present each table and figure on a separate sheet of paper, gathering them together at the end of article.
    10.  All photographs and scanned images should have a resolution of minimum 300 dpi and 1500 pixels and their format should be TIFF or JPEG. Due permissions should be taken for copyright protected photographs/images. Even for photographs/images available in the public domain, it should be clearly ascertained whether or not their reproduction requires permission for purposes of publishing (which is a profit-making endeavor). All photographs/scanned images should be provided separately.
    11.  A consolidated listing of all books, articles, essays, theses and documents referred to (including any referred to in the tables, graphs and maps) should be provided at the end of the article.

    Arrangement of references: Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. In each reference, authors’ names are inverted (last name first) for all authors (first, second or subsequent ones); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. If the work has more than six authors, list the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author’s name.

    Chronological listing: If more than one work by the same author(s) is cited, they should be listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.

    Sentence case: In references, sentence case (only the first word and any proper noun are capitalized – e.g., ‘The software industry in India’) is to be followed for the titles of papers, books, articles, etc.

    Title case: In references, Journal titles are put in title case (first letter of all words except articles and conjunctions are capitalized – e.g., Journal of Business Ethics).

    Italicize: Book and Journal titles are to be italicized.

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    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. Usually the journal is printed in 2 color (B&W). 

    4.3 Identifiable information

    Where a journal uses double-anonymised peer review, authors are required to submit:

    1. A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymised. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
    2. A separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers. 

    Visit the Sage Author Gateway for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.

    4.4 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.

    4.5 Reference style

    Journal of South Asian Development adheres to the APA reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Journal of South Asian Development is hosted on Sage Track Sage, a web based online submission and peer review system. Visit to login and submit your article online. 

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit Sage Track Sage.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    We encourage all authors and co-authors to link their ORCIDs to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. We collect ORCID IDs during the manuscript submission process and your ORCID ID then becomes part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant)

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    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1. Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

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    6.2. Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

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    6.3. Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4. Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Visit to log in and submit your article online. Manuscripts and all editorial correspondence should be addressed to the journal administrator.

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at

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