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OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research

OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research

Published in Association with The American Occupational Therapy Foundation

eISSN: 19382383 | ISSN: 15394492 | Current volume: 43 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Quarterly
OTJR is published quarterly by the American Occupational Therapy Foundation, Inc. This peer-reviewed journal is based in the United States and invites national and international submissions of empirical and review articles on factors of human participation and how such factors influence health and well-being.

Content includes:
  • Articles from social, psychological, medical and rehabilitation sciences that advance understanding of everyday activities as they influence participation and health
  • Original research from occupational therapy that supports evidence based practice to enable participation
  • Qualitative and/or mixed methods research from occupational science and other disciplines that provides insight into how humans engage, participate and interact within their cultures and society.  
Subscriber benefits include:
  • Access to current articles, as well as several years of archived content
  • Early review of manuscripts online within two months of acceptance
  • Access to content in a Journal indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, and Social Sciences Citation Index

The aim of OTJR is to advance knowledge and science in occupational therapy and related fields, nationally and internationally, through the publication of scholarly literature and research. The journal publishes research that advances the understanding of occupation as it relates to participation and health. The following topics should guide authors seeking to publish in the journal:

  • The relationship of occupation to health, well-being and/or quality of life
  • The influence of body systems or body function on occupational performance and/or social participation
  • The psychometric properties of measures or methodologies that advance understanding of performance, occupation, and participation
  • The outcomes or effects of interventions that influence performance, occupation, health, and/or quality of life
  • The effectiveness and efficacy of occupation-based interventions
  • The influence of the social, built, or natural environments on occupational performance;
  • Qualitative or mixed methods research from occupational science and other disciplines that provide insight into how humans engage, participate and interact within their cultures and society.
  • Other topics relating to occupational therapy practice that will lead to improving the lives of people as they seek to fully participate in family, work, community and society.
Editor in Chief
Timothy J. Wolf, OTD, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Associate Dean for Research, Professor and Department Chair--Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, University of Missouri, Columbia MO, USA
Assistant Editor
Melissa Knott, MSc(OT), OT Reg (Ont.), CCLCP PhD Candidate, Western University, London, ON, Canada
Melanie Tkach, PhD, OTR/L Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Colombia, MO, USA
Associate Editors - International
Isabelle Gélinas, PhD, OT (C), erg. Associate Professor, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada
Ching-yi Wu, ScD, OTR Professor and Chair, Department of Occupational Therapy & Graduate Institute of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University
Associate Editors - USA
Anita Bundy, ScD, OT/L, FAOTA, FOTARA Professor and Department Head, Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Pei-Fen Chang, PhD, OTR Associate Professor, School of Occupational Therapy, Texas Women's University - Houston Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Erin R. Foster, PhD, OTD, MSCI, OTR/L Associate Professor in Occupational Therapy, Neurology, and Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
Gordon Muir Giles, PhD, OTR/L Professor, Occupational Therapy Program, Samuel Merritt University, Oakland, CA, USA
Moses Ikiugu, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Professor and Director of Research Occupational Therapy Department University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD USA
Jessica Kramer, PhD, OTR/L Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Lauren M. Little, PhD, OTR/L Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA
Janet Njelesani, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, New York University, New York, NY, USA
Andrew Persch, PhD, OTR/L, BCP Associate Professor, Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, USA
Roberta Pineda, PhD, OTR/L, CNT Assistant Professor, Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Rachel Proffitt, OTD, OTR/L Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy
Beth Pyatak, PhD, OTR/L, CDCES, FAOTA Associate Professor, USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Sergio Romero, PhD Adjunct Research Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Arlene A. Schmid, PhD, OTR, FAOTA Professor, Colorado State University, College of Health and Human Sciences, Department of Occupational Therapy, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Review Board
Megan Bewernitz, PhD, OTR/L Assistant Professor Occupational Therapy, Brooks Rehabilitation College of Healthcare Sciences Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL, USA
Bette R. Bonder, PhD, OTR, FAOTA Professor Emerita, Health Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA
Emily Grattan, PhD, OTR/L Assistant Professor, Division of Occupational Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
Ickpyo Hong, PhD, OTR/L Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Software and Digital Healthcare Convergence, Yonsei University, Wonju, Ganwon-do, South Korea
Catherine Hoyt, PhD, OTD, OTR/L Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis
Kimberly P. Hreha, EdD, OTR/L Research Assistant Professor, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
Sarah Krasniuk, PhD, MSc Post-Doctoral Fellow, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Chih-Ying (Cynthia) Li, PhD, OTR/L Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
Nedra Peter, PhD, Msc, BSc Adjunct Professor, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada
Sumita Rege, PhD, OTR Department of Occupational Therapy, Manipal College of Health Professions, MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka, India
Elizabeth Rhodus, PhD, MS, OTR/L Assistant Professor, Department of Behavioral Science & Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA
Carolyn Schmidt Hanson, PhD, OTR/L Clincial Assistant Professor, University of Florida
Mary P. Shotwell, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Professor, Ph.D. in Health Sciences Program,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions Provo, UT, USA
Wenqing He, PhD Professor, Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada
Fellow
Leah Botkin, MSOT, OTR/L PhD Student, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
Bridget Kraus, MOT, OTR/L Doctoral Student, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Colombia, MO, USA
Timothy Marks, PhD, OTR/L Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
Laryn O'Donnell, OTD, OTR/L, PhD Candidate Department of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA
Kial-Ann Rasmussen, MOT, OTR/L PhD Student, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
Megan Tarin, BS, MOT Masters Candidate, Department of Occupational Therapy, Carroll University, Waukesha, WI, USA
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences
  • Clarivate Analytics: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)
  • EBSCO
  • OTDBase
  • ProQuest
  • PsycINFO
  • PubMed: MEDLINE
  • Scopus
  • For a Word document version of the author guidelines, please download the Word version attached.

    Introduction
         Editorial Board
         Aims and Scope
         Types of Manuscripts
         Open Access Publishing Option
    Manuscript Submission
    Manuscript Preparation
         ORCID
         Patient Consent
         Research Data
    Author Guidelines – All Manuscript Types
         Formatting
         Inclusive Language Guidelines
         Cover Letter
         Title Page
         Key Words
         Abstract
         Plain Language Summary (PLS)
         Main Document
         References
         Tables & Figures
         Funding
         Supplemental Materials
    Review Process Information
    Artificial Intelligence
    Author Guidelines for Revisions
         On acceptance and publication
         OnlineFirst Publication
         Access to your published article
         Promoting your article
         Appealing the publication decision
    Contributor’s publishing agreement

     

    Introduction
    OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research is published quarterly by the American Occupational Therapy Foundation, Inc. This peer-reviewed journal offers empirical and review articles to readers interested in advancing the understanding of occupation as it relates to participation and health. The journal invites manuscript submissions that conform to its purpose and scope (see aims and scope below) without regard to the professional affiliation of authors. The journal encourages submissions of original research reports of translational or basic research studies with quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods designs.

    Editorial Board
    A current listing of members on the Editorial Board can be found at: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/otjr-occupation-participation-and-health/journal202285#editorial-board

    Aims and Scope
    The aim of OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research is to advance knowledge and science in occupational therapy, occupational science, and related fields, nationally and internationally, through the publication of scholarly literature and research. The journal publishes research that advances the understanding of occupation as it relates to participation and health.

    The following topics may guide authors seeking to publish in the journal:

    • The relationship of occupation to health, well-being and/or quality of life
    • The influence of body systems or body function on occupational performance and/or social participation 
    • The psychometric properties of measures or methodologies that advance understanding of performance, occupation, and participation
    • The outcomes or effects of interventions that influence performance, occupation, health, and/or quality of life
    • The effectiveness and efficacy of occupation-based interventions
    • Original research from occupational therapy that supports evidence-based practice to enable participation
    • Occupational development in all ages of the lifespan, i.e., the occupation of children, the importance of occupation in maintaining health in aging
    • The influence of the social, built, or natural environments on occupational performance
    • Qualitative or mixed methods research from occupational science and other disciplines that provide insight into how humans engage, participate, and interact within their cultures and society
    • Other topics relating to occupational therapy practice that will lead to improving the lives of people as they seek to fully participate in family, work, community, and society

    Types of Manuscripts
    OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research publishes:

    • Full-length original research articles, which include empirical translational or basic research studies with quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods designs.
    • Review articles, including systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses; evidence-based reviews, integrative reviews, or scoping reviews.
    • Brief Reports that represent a short report of original research that is pilot or exploratory in nature or addresses a discrete research question and lacks broad implications
    • Book reviews,
    • Letters to the editor, and
    • Forum proceedings that inform and/or advance the science of occupational therapy. Submissions will be determined by invitation from the Editor-in-Chief, or topic proposals may be submitted directly to the Editor-in-Chief for consideration.
    • Invited reviews or commentaries, by invitation from the Editor-in-Chief. Topic proposals may be submitted directly to the Editor-in-Chief for consideration.

    OTJR does not accept research protocol or occupational therapy education focused manuscripts.

    Open Access Publishing Option
    OTJR offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice program. This allows you to publish your article with a CC-BY license.

    Please visit the Sage Choice website for additional information, pricing and eligibility for possible discounts or waivers. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self-author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    Should you wish to submit for Open Access publishing, you may identify your submission as Open Access upon submission.

    Manuscript Submission
    Manuscripts addressing one or more of the above purposes are acceptable for submission. Please read the guidelines below then submit manuscripts to: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/otjr.  Manuscripts considered for publication with OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research must be submitted solely to OTJR and must not have been previously published elsewhere.

    During the submission process, authors must indicate if they have a financial interest in or serve as a consultant, reviewer, or evaluator for any product or company mentioned in the article. As part of the submission process, authors will be required to warrant that: (1) authors are submitting their original work; (2) authors have ownership rights in the work; and (3) authors have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by them. Accordingly, authors are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal; it is not being considered for publication elsewhere, and it has not already been published elsewhere.

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures, or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. If academic, hospital, or business affiliations are given or are referred to in the manuscript, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission from the proper authorities to use the names of such. All letters of permission should be submitted with the manuscript. If applicable, authors should describe the role of the study sponsor, if any, in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the report; and the decision to submit the report for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so state. If applicable, authors must declare whether they had assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. If the manuscript reports on a registered clinical trial and has been assigned a trial registration number from a public trials registry, authors should provide this information.

    Please see the Sage guidelines on prior publication and note that OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers. Please note this in your submission and include the DOI for the pre-print in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the pre-print server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. If the paper is accepted, authors must include a link on the pre-print to the final version of the paper.

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Manuscript Preparation
    ORCID
    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If authors already have an ORCID ID, authors will be asked to associate that to the submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do. Click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Authors’ ORCID ID will become part of the accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable only to the authors. ORCID ID is published with the accepted article so that fellow researchers reading the article can link to the authors’ ORCID profile and from there link to the authors’ other publications.  

    If authors do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    Patient Consent
    Authors are required to ensure the following guidelines are followed, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. 

    Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the submitted article.

    Research Data
    At Sage we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency, and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, The Journal encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and where data is included, to add a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway, which includes information about Sage’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.

    Author Guidelines – All Manuscript Types
    The following guidelines adhere to Sage and OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research’s Editorial Policies, and must be used prior to, and while developing and submitting a manuscript. When submitting manuscripts, authors will be asked to confirm that they have read these guidelines and that their submission adheres to the guidelines. Manuscripts that do not conform to these guidelines will be returned to the author without review.

    Formatting
    All manuscript submissions must be typed in Times New Roman, with a 12-point font size. The line spacing must be double-spaced throughout the manuscript, including the title page, abstract, main document, references, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables. Each page should be numbered sequentially. Each page should have 1-inch margins on all sides, with the right side of the text unjustified.

    Authors should submit the manuscripts prepared in accordance with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition (http://www.apastyle.org). The Journal also adheres to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (2010) of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Do not use error-prone abbreviations (see www.ismp.org/Tools/errorproneabbreviations.pdf for a complete list).

    Reporting Guidelines
    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline (https://www.penelope.ai/equatorwizard). Below are some examples:

    • Randomized trials: All randomized controlled trials should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist as a supplementary file.
    • Systematic reviews: Systematic reviews should include a completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and a completed PRISMA checklist as a supplementary file.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    Inclusive Language Guidelines
    OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research recommends:

    • Names of conditions are more specific than categories of conditions or general references, such as "people with disabilities." The language to use for disability is evolving. The important part is to maintain the integrity of all individuals as human beings.
    • Person-first vs. identity-first language:
      • Person-first language emphasizes the person, not individual's disabling or chronic condition (e.g., person with paraplegia, people with substance use disorders, people with intellectual disabilities)
      • Identity-first language can be used when the disability becomes the focus, which allows the individual to claim the disability and choose their identity rather than permitting others to name it or select terms with negative implications (e.g., blind person, autistic person, amputee)
      • It is permissible to use either approach or to mix person-first and identity-first language unless, or until, you know that a group or individual clearly prefers a specific approach.
    • Neurodiversity is a term that has been embraced by many advocacy movements by, and on behalf of, affected individuals, such as people with autism spectrum disorders and learning disabilities, because it shows there are natural variations in brain differences.
    • Refer to individuals with disabilities as “patients” or “clients” within the context of a health care setting.

    OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research requests that authors avoid:

    • Avoid “othering” terms, slurs, and excessively negative labels.
    • Avoid pictorial metaphorics or negativistic terms that imply restriction (e.g., “wheelchair bound”), excessive and negative labels (e.g., “AIDS victim”), and slurs (e.g., “cripple”).
    • Avoid euphemisms that are condescending when describing individuals with disabilities (e.g., “special needs,” “physically challenged,” “handi-capable”).
    • Avoid reducing people with disabilities to a list or group of deficiencies.

    Cover Letter
    Every manuscript submission must be accompanied by a cover letter, addressed to the Editor-in-Chief. In the cover letter, please make sure to specify the type of submission (e.g., full-length research article, book review, letter to the editor, or forum proceeding). Include a general description of the submission and its content. For book reviews, include the book under review in the general description. Also, provide a rationale for why the submission will make a substantive contribution to the journal. During the submission process, copy and paste, and upload the cover letter into the designated section.

    Title Page
    Every manuscript submission must include a Title Page, uploaded as a separate file. During the submission process, select “Title Page” from the file designation pull-down menu. The Title Page should include the following:

    • Manuscript title: The title should be a maximum 12 words without any abbreviations.
    • Authors: All contributing authors should be listed on the title page with their professional designations and affiliations. Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who: (i) made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, (ii) drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content, (iii) approved the version to be published. Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines.
    • Corresponding author: Include the mailing and email address of only the corresponding author.
    • Acknowledgements section: For the purposes of anonymous peer review, include acknowledgements grant/contract support, and information concerning previous presentation of the material at symposia or conferences in an "Acknowledgements" section of the title page, and not in the main manuscript submission. Once a decision has been reached regarding publication, this section will appear in the manuscript prior to the references. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the "Acknowledgements" section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identif ythe entity that paid for this assistance.
    • Declaration of conflicting interests section: The policy of OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research requires a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. Please include any declaration in a "Conflict of Interests" section on the title page. If no declaration is made, the following will be printed under this heading in your article: "None declared." Alternatively, you may wish to state that "The Author(s) delcare(s) that there is no conflict of interest." When making a declaration the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article have with any sponsoring organization, editorial, publisher, and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article. Any commercial or financial involvements that might represent an appearance of a conflict of interest need to be additionally disclosed in a covering letter accompanying your article to assist the Editor in evaluating whether sufficient disclosure has been made within the Declaration of Conflicting Interests provided in the article. For more information, please visit the Sage Journal Author Gateway.
    • Research ethics section and patient consent: For all submissions, on the title page please include the full name of the Institutional Review Board and an Ethics Committee reference number. In the methods section of the manuscript please include appropriate anonymous information only. All other manuscript files should be devoid of author information (example: name, institution, city) to facilitate the anonymous peer review process. When reporting studies involving human subjects, authors must indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of relevant institutional or national bodies and consistent with the revised (2000) Helsinki Declaration and typescripts must include a statement that the research protocol was approved by the appropriate ethical committee. All papers reporting animal and human studies must report approval, or a letter stating the study was exempt, obtained from the local Ethics Review Board or Institutional Review Board (or the equivalent for countries other than the US and Canada). Also, the manuscript must report whether appropriate informed consent procedures were used; that all subjects were informed of the study's risks and benefits, that their participation was voluntary, and that their identity would not be disclosed. Authors must also confirm appropriate handling of confidentiality and data security.
    • Trials: If you are submitting a trial and it has been registered, please include this full information on the title page. Please also include the anonymized information in the methods section of the paper. In line with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, revised Hong Kong 1989, we encourage authors to register their clinical trials (at http://clinicaltrials.gov or other suitable databases identified by the ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org/publishing_10register.html).
    • For book reviews: The title page should include the following information about the book in reference format using APA 7th edition: Author Last Name, Author name. (YEAR). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication.

    Key Words
    When submitting the manuscript in ScholarOne, authors must select three identifying key words from the available options. The keywords should reflect the manuscripts content area and/or methodology. Key words do not need to be listed on the manuscript files or title page.

    Abstract
    Articles should include an abstract that clearly and concisely summarizes the manuscript. The abstract should be written in one paragraph and contain the following headings: rationale OR background, objectives, methodology, results OR findings, and implications OR conclusion. Abstracts should be no more than 150 words, which is inclusive of required headings. During the submission process, copy and paste the abstract into the designated section.

    Plain Language Summary (PLS)

    A plain language summary (PLS) must be provided for all article types that require an abstract. The plain language title (approx. 50 words) and plain language summary (approx. 300 words) should describe the article using non-technical language, making it accessible to a wider network of readers. More information and guidance on how to write a PLS can be found on our Author Gateway.

    The PLS publishes directly below the scientific abstract and are open access making it available online for anyone to read. Peer review of the PLS will be conducted following our PLS reviewer guidelines. When submitting, authors should enter their plain language title and plain language summary into the box provided in the submission system. The PLS does not need to be provided in the manuscript text or as a separate file. Manuscripts without a PLS, or a PLS which is a direct copy of the scientific abstract, will be returned. If the article type does not require an abstract and therefore does not require a PLS please enter “N/A” in each box.

    If you need professional help writing your Plain Language Summary, please visit our Author Services portal.

    Requirements for Anonymous Peer Review - All Submissions
    In order to facilitate this double-anonymous peer review, authors are required to submit:

    • version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymized. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
    • separate title page which includes any removed or anonymized material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers.

    Main Document
    Word Limit per Submission Type
    Word limits for manuscript submissions, and whether references are included within the word limits will vary by submission type, as outlined below. Words contained in Tables, Figures, or Supplementary Files are NOT included in the word count.

    Original Research Article and Occupational Science Section  
    Full-length research articles may include data-driven quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods designs. When the journal announces a call for a Special Issue, the Special Issue should adhere to the guidelines listed here, in addition to in the information stated in the call for papers.

    • Introduction: The introduction should include: a literature review of the topic, clearly defined objectives/hypotheses/aims/research questions, and a rationale for conducting the study. Objectives should identify the specific aim or outcome of the study.
    • Methods: The methods section shoudl clearly outline the: study design, setting and location, process of participant selection and eligibility criteria, participant consent, measures/variables/assessments, outcomes, data collection and analyses. Please state whether an ethics or institutional review board approval was obtained; if not, provide a rationale.
    • Results: The results section should provide a clear interpretation of the results, consistent with the quantitative, or qualitative, or mixed methodology used.  
    • Discussion: The discussion section should: restate the purpose of the study, explore the study findings in comparison to the current literature, address study limitations and strengths. Discussion should include an emphasis on the implications of the research to occupational therapy practice or occupational science.
    • Conclusions: The conclusion section should: answer the study’s objectives/hypotheses/aims/research questions, include how the manuscript contributes to the further improvement/ understanding of occupation, participation and/or health, and address how the manuscript contributes to the evidence base of occupational therapy practice and/or the advancement of occupational science.

    Brief Reports

    A Brief Report is a short report of original research that is typically pilot or exploratory in nature or that addresses a discrete research question and lacks broad implications. The research can be of any design. A brief report may present an update on previously reported work if it includes new data, results, etc. Authors should follow author guidelines for reporting original research to the extent possible, given the established word limit.

    Forum Proceedings
    Forum Proceedings should include the following:

    • Introduction: The introduction should include a literature review of the topic, the history and purpose of the present forum, information on prior forums on this topic (if applicable), the rationale for conducting a forum on this topic (e.g., why this format, why now, and why with these stakeholders), and outline the objectives of the forum. Objectives should identify the specific aim or outcome of the forum.
    • Methods: The methods section should outline participants, partners, and organizations, specifically: who convened the forum, and who were the invited participants and/or stakeholders at the forum, and their roles. Descriptive statistics of participant demographics (e.g., discipline area, credentials, levels of expertise, etc.) should be provided if possible. The setting and procedures for the forum should be outlined, specifically: the location, duration, and description of forum agenda and areas of focus; how were panels convened, and by whom; and whether there is an external reference/archive to the forum contents and/or presentations. Please note whether an ethics or institutional review board approval was obtained; if not, provide a rationale. Data evaluation should be outlined, specifically with regards to how participant feedback was obtained, evaluated, and integrated into the outcome of the forum; and how consensus was reached.
    • Results: The results section should summarize specific outcome recommendations and the level of consensus for each, as applicable.
    • Discussion: Discussion should further explore each outcome/recommendation for future directions and priorities, pertaining to clinical practice, research, public health, and/or policy. Discussion should further situate outcomes in relation to existing evidence or literature when feasible.
    • Conclusions: Conclusions should be completed as per the guidelines for full-research article submissions.

    Book Reviews
    Book reviews should provide a brief and clear description of the contents of the book, including scope and structure. Reviews must provide brief information about the author and the background of the book (example: if the book is a result of a PhD dissertation). The review should evaluate the book’s strengths and weaknesses, and provide examples of each. Authors may wish to consider the following questions when summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the book:

    • What are important contributions that this book makes?
    • What contributions could have been made, but were not made?
    • What aspects where missing?
    • How does this book stand out when compared to others in the field?
    • To which audience(s) will this book be most helpful?

    If needed, use quotations to provide an example of the writing style and/or statements that are particularly helpful in illustrating the author(s) points. The review should assess the book’s place in the field of occupational therapy and/or occupational science, including comments on the potential value and impact of the book.

    Letters to the Editor
    Letters should provide thoughtful scientific criticism, rebuttal, or personal data relating to research articles or commentary published in OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. No more than five citations and references can be included. Unless specifically indicated to the contrary, all letters will be assumed to be for publication and will be subject to the same editorial revision policies as other manuscripts.

    References
    Submit References in the main document and format to APA 7th edition style. Please note that references may be included in the word limit, dependent on the type of submission as outlined in the “Word Count” table above. The author must assume responsibility for the accuracy of references. Old citations should relate to the original work in the field, classic work related to the topic, or, in rare cases, the only other relevant work.

    Tables & Figures
    The manuscript submission should have a maximum of five tables and figures, combined. Tables and Figures are NOT counted within the word limit.

    Instructions for Tables are as follows:

    • Submit Tables in a separate document, with each Table on a new page within a word processing document (e.g., DOCX).
    • Tables may be submitted in separate documents as per the preference of the author.
    • Format each Table according to APA 7th edition, with proper numbering and a table title.
    • Indicate the location of the table in the manuscript with a placeholder (example: <Insert table 1 here>).
    • During submission, select “Table” from the file designation pull-down menu.

    Instructions for Figures are as follows:

    • Submit each Figure in a separate file.
    • Submit Figures as digital images with high resolution (at least 300 dpi) in JPEG or TIFF format.
    • Submitting images that are embedded into Word or PowerPoint® files are NOT acceptable.
    • Figures will be printed in black and white only. Figure legends should not be included in the digital image. Instead, indicate the location of the figure in the manuscript with a placeholder that represents the figure legend (example: <insert figure 1 here>)
    •  During submission, select “Figure” from the file designation pull-down menu.

    Funding
    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgements on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding or state in the acknowledgments section that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    Supplemental Materials
    Supplemental material is published electronically on the journal website and does not appear in the print version of the journal but is readily accessed from the journal’s table of contents as well as by a hyperlink within the pdf file of the manuscript. In general, supplemental materials may include information that is of value but is not critical for readers to understand the main outcomes of the study and may also include results that enhance or extend the findings.

    Reference to supplemental material should be made in the main text of the paper (e.g., Supplemental methods, Supplemental Figure 1, Supplemental Table 2, etc.), and their legends/titles should be labeled in the same way. The files should also be labeled with “supplement" (or "supp," "supplementary," etc.) in the file name. Please select “Supplementary File” from the file designation pull-down menu when uploading these files during the submission process.

    Supplemental Materials should be submitted in the format for publication because Supplemental Materials are not type-set or edited by the publisher and are not provided with the page proofs.

    Artificial Intelligence

    Use of Large Language Models and generative AI tools in writing your submission

    Sage recognizes the value of large language models (LLMs) (e.g. ChatGPT) and generative AI as productivity tools that can help authors in preparing their article for submission; to generate initial ideas for a structure, for example, or when summarizing, paraphrasing, language polishing etc. However, it is important to note that all language models have limitations and are unable to replicate human creative and critical thinking. Human intervention with these tools is essential to ensure that content presented is accurate and appropriate to the reader. Sage therefore requires authors to be aware of the limitations of language models and to consider these in any use of LLMs in their submissions:

    • Objectivity: Previously published content that contains racist, sexist or other biases can be present in LLM-generated text, and minority viewpoints may not be represented. Use of LLMs has the potential to perpetuate these biases because the information is decontextualized and harder to detect.
    • Accuracy: LLMs can ‘hallucinate’ i.e. generate false content, especially when used outside of their domain or when dealing with complex or ambiguous topics. They can generate content that is linguistically but not scientifically plausible, they can get facts wrong, and they have been shown to generate citations that don’t exist. Some LLMs are only trained on content published before a particular date and therefore present an incomplete picture.
    • Contextual understanding: LLMs cannot apply human understanding to the context of a piece of text, especially when dealing with idiomatic expressions, sarcasm, humor, or metaphorical language. This can lead to errors or misinterpretations in the generated content.
    • Training data: LLMs require a large amount of high-quality training data to achieve optimal performance. However, in some domains or languages, such data may not be readily available, limiting the usefulness of the model.

    Guidance for authors

    Authors are required to:

    1. Clearly indicate the use of language models in the manuscript, including which model was used and for what purpose. Please use the methods or acknowledgements section, as appropriate.
    2. Verify the accuracy, validity, and appropriateness of the content and any citations generated by language models and correct any errors or inconsistencies.
    3. Provide a list of sources used to generate content and citations, including those generated by language models. Double-check citations to ensure they are accurate, and are properly referenced.
    4. Be conscious of the potential for plagiarism where the LLM may have reproduced substantial text from other sources. Check the original sources to be sure you are not plagiarizing someone else’s work.
    5. Acknowledge the limitations of language models in the manuscript, including the potential for bias, errors, and gaps in knowledge.
    6. Please note that AI bots such as ChatGPT should not be listed as an author on your submission.

    We will take appropriate corrective action where we identify published articles with undisclosed use of such tools.

    Review Process Information
    Manuscripts meeting the stated guidelines go through the peer review process common to most respected professional journals. OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research adheres to a rigorous double-anonymous reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties. All manuscripts are reviewed anonymously by a minimum of two reviewers.

    In order to facilitate this double-anonymous peer review, authors are required to submit:

    1. A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymised. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
    2. separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers.

    The average time to first decision is published annually in the January Editorial. Upon acceptance, authors will receive page proofs to review before the manuscript is published. The corresponding author will receive an electronic complimentary copy of the manuscript, which they can share with their co-authors.

    OTJR is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for OTJR can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    Author Guidelines for Revisions
    Authors may submit a revised version of their manuscript to the journal if they receive a decision that requests revision and resubmission. Revised manuscript submissions must include at least three documents: (1) cover letter with full information on author information; (2) anonymous response letter to reviewers; and (3) a revised version of the manuscript that clearly identifies all changes made.

    1. Cover letter: Submit the cover letter as a separate document. Address the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief. In the cover letter, state that you are resubmitting the manuscript and that you have addressed all of the reviewers’ comments. The cover letter may be unblended.
    2. Response letter to reviewers: Submit the Response letter to reviewers as a separate document. This document must be separate from the cover letter. Do not include any identifying information, as the letter will go through peer review. Ensure you clearly address each reviewers’ comments with referral to the changes made in the main document.
    3. Revised version of the manuscript that highlights all changes made: Submit the Revised version of the manuscript as a separate document. Highlight all changes made; for example, through using track changes, highlighting the text, or using a different font color. Do not include any identifying information, as the revised manuscript will be peer reviewed. Do not submit a clean copy of the revised manuscript. Ensure you adhere to all guidelines listed under Manuscript Preparation (e.g., maximum word count as outlined above, dependent on submission type).

    On acceptance and publication
    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    OnlineFirst Publication
    OnlineFirst allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite OnlineFirst articles.

    Access to your published article
    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.  

    Promoting your article
    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. In addition, Sage is partnered with Kudos, a free service that allows authors to explain, enrich, share, and measure the impact of their article. Find out how to maximize your article’s impact with Kudos.

    Appealing the publication decision
    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at publication_ethics@sagepub.com This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). COPE suggests a transparent appeals policy is best practice but please discuss with your editor. 

    Contributor’s publishing agreement
    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the Sage Journal Author Gateway. 

    OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research editorial staff will subject a certain number of articles, randomly chosen, to Turnitin to scan for plagiarism. Where an article is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or all Sage journals, or appropriate legal action. 

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    However, OTJR offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice program. This allows you to publish your article with a CC-BY license.

    Please visit the Sage Choice website for additional information, pricing and eligibility for possible discounts or waivers. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self-author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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