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South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases

South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases

Published in Association with Birla Institute of Management Technology

eISSN: 23210303 | ISSN: 22779779 | Current volume: 10 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: 3 Times/Year

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Special Issue on Sustainable Innovation: Novel landscapes and perspectives for business and management

South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases
(SAJBMC) is a peer-reviewed, tri-annual journal of Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida (India). The journal aims to provide a space for high-quality original case study research. Publication of pure research, applied research and field studies do not fall under the domain of BMC. Further, the journal does not accept Teaching Cases.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases (SAJBMC) is a peer-reviewed, tri-annual journal of Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida (India). The journal aims to provide a space for high-quality original case study research that studies a phenomenon within the boundaries of an organizational context. It has stopped accepting teaching cases.

SAJBMC accepts only case study research

Case Study Research

Robert Yin in Case Study Research Design and Methods, Fourth Edition, SAGE, 2009 provides the explanation of the type of case study researches the journal is inviting:

1. A case study is an empirical inquiry that

a. investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context, especially when
b. the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

2. The case study inquiry

a. copes with the technically distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points, and as one result
b. relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion, and as another result
c. benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and analysis.

So, when should you use a case study approach?

According to Yin (2003) a case study design should be considered when:

1. The focus of the study is to answer “how” and “why” questions

2. The behaviour of those involved in the study cannot be manipulated

3. The contextual conditions need to be covered because they are relevant to the phenomenon under study

4. The boundaries are not clear between the phenomenon and context.

The SAJBMC ACCEPTS ONLY CASE STUDY RESEARCH that studies a “Phenomenon” within a case “Context” of an organization applying the rigour of research and having theoretical contributions are considered by SAJBMC for review and possible acceptance.

Phenomena such as: Sustainability, Entrepreneurship, Mindfulness, Conflict management, Job Crafting, Leadership, Teambuilding, Business growth, Engagement, Crises Management, Socialization, Materialism, customer experience, Positive psychology

And NOT as: 4Ps, Service marketing, Environment scanning, product launch, customer satisfaction, loyalty, PESTEL, SWOT etc. Topics covered in an MBA course are avoided.

Teaching Cases

The idea for writing a case can generate from either an event or a desire to study a phenomenon. An event-based situation provides excellent context to write a teaching case by describing the event, its outcomes, the dilemmas caused in the mind of the protagonist, the alternatives that can be chosen and then asking the students to discuss and select the best alternative to solve the dilemma. SAJBMC does not accept such type of cases.

Case Study Research

A motivation to write a case on the study of a phenomenon gives rise to a case study research wherein a phenomenon is studied within the boundaries of a case context.

The positioning of the journal

SAJBMC aspires to be known as a case focused research journal which
1. Publishes FRESH case study researches from South Asia
2. Selects cases with THEORETICAL LINKAGE to the concept, framework or model
3. Reviews cases with an approach to IMPROVE rather than to reject
4. Provides support to CONNECT with THEORY
5. Responds QUICKLY: Revolving Door Desk review within 5-6 weeks and Transparent Peer review within 5-6 months
In short, SAJBMC is a bouquet of theory linked fresh case study researches from South Asia. However, we do accept cases globally.

Phenomenon

A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of understanding a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way. In simple words phenomenon is any happening in your surroundings which can be observed and studied. What we would be interested in is the novelty that such happenings can provide with reference to that phenomenon.

Context

The term context can be misleading for a case study research the line between case itself and its context is blurry. To clarify this confusion Poulis, Poulis, & Plakoyiannaki (2013), define context “as a multi-dimensional array of phenomena, sites and events that have the potential to inform methodological choices and, more specifically, case-selection practices.”. They suggest that “researchers may come to appreciate context by treating case sampling and contextualisation as a joint decision rather than as two separate tasks in case-study research. Such an approach renders case-study selection an emergent process”. In simple words case is part of a broad context and SAJBMC does not accept cases which are decontextualized.

Intersecting Phenomenon, Context, and Case

A phenomenon is a continuum which can occur in various context, for example ‘discrimination’ is a phenomenon which can happen in different regions (context) of the world (context), during different time (context) experienced by different set of people (context). A case would be a specific occurrence of that phenomenon in a small part of given context. For example, discrimination (phenomenon) against health workers of AIIMS (case) during the corona virus pandemic in India (context). Thus, when identifying the case to study, the researcher should be very clear about the phenomenon being studied and the context in which it is being studied, without which the very purpose of the case study research will be defeated.

Case Study Research

Robert Yin in Case Study Research Design and Methods, Fourth Edition, SAGE, 2009 provides the explanation of the type of case study researches the journal is inviting:

3. A case study is an empirical inquiry that

a. investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context, especially when
b. the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

4. The case study inquiry

a. copes with the technically distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points, and as one result
b. relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion, and as another result
c. benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and analysis.

The views of authors such as Merriam and Stake will be discussed later in the text.

So, when should you use a case study approach?

According to Yin (2003) a case study design should be considered when:

5. The focus of the study is to answer “how” and “why” questions

6. The behaviour of those involved in the study cannot be manipulated

7. The contextual conditions need to be covered because they are relevant to the phenomenon under study

8. The boundaries are not clear between the phenomenon and context.

The SAJBMC ACCEPTS ONLY CASE STUDY RESEARCH that studies a “Phenomenon” within a case “Context” of an organization applying the rigour of research and having theoretical contributions are considered by SAJBMC for review and possible acceptance.

Phenomena such as: Sustainability, Entrepreneurship, Mindfulness, Conflict management, Job Crafting, Leadership, Teambuilding, Business growth, Engagement, Crises Management, Socialization, Materialism, customer experience

And NOT as: 4Ps, Service marketing, Environment scanning, product launch, customer satisfaction, loyalty, PESTEL, SWOT etc. Topics covered in an MBA course are avoided.

The preferred cases

  • Should NOT stop by describing only the context but study a phenomenon within the context.
  • Not written with more than two-year-old issues/data
  • Are NOT hypotheses based empirical researches
  • Are NOT TEACHING cases

Cases will be denied for publication if they:

  • Are NOT case study research
  • Do not study a phenomenon of interest
  • Selected phenomenon is a part of MBA course (Research topics should be beyond MBA courses).
  • Do not have theoretical contributions
  • Only describes the context. Provides answers to ‘What?’. Does not raise ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’ questions. The research questions formulated based on the outcome of ‘What?’ tend to be shallow and may NOT be researchable.
  • Are written with more than two-year-old issues/data
  • Are hypotheses based empirical researches
  • Are TEACHING cases
  • Characters and the name of the firm are disguised
  • Situation is fictitious
  • Case is about a single living or dead person

Strengths and weaknesses of the case study method

Strengths

The case study method involves detailed, holistic investigation (for example, all aspects of a company) and can utilise a range of different measurement techniques (the case study researcher is not limited to any one methodological tool). Data can be collected over a period of time, and it is contextual (relative to a certain industry/company). The histories and stories that can be told about the company are also something that can be assessed and documented—not just empirical data, for example, stories and anecdotes about how the company interacts with the marketplace can be used.

Weaknesses

Case studies involve analysis of small data sets, such as one or two companies, that may lead the researcher to gain some insights about trends in relevant industries. For example, a case study about the Nissan car company might be used to generalise about similar companies in the automobile industry. The data is “real life” that have been collected from a company or companies. However, the studies involve “small” number of data and therefore conventional empirical techniques cannot be used, or where they are used, they may have limited application as there may not be enough data to meet requirements for statistical significance.

Understanding Case Study Research

In order to understand a definition of case study research, we need to analyze and synthesize the differing perspectives of three prominent methodologists, namely Robert K. Yin, Sharan Merriam, and Robert E. Stake, on the utilization of case study method (Yazan, 2015).

The three authors hold divergent views of the definition of case and case study. For instance, Yin (2002) defines case as “a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between a phenomenon and context are not clear and the researcher has little control over the phenomenon and context (p. 13)”

Given this definition, from Yinian point of view, case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates the case or cases conforming to the abovementioned definition by addressing the “how” or “why” questions concerning the phenomenon of interest.

As for the definition of case, Stake (1995) agrees with Louis Smith’s (1978) rendition: researchers should view case as “a bounded system” and inquire into it “as an object rather than a process” (p. 2). He himself depicts some of the attributes of case in his conceptualization: case is “a specific, a complex, functioning thing,” more specifically “an integrated system” which “has a boundary and working parts” and purposive (in social sciences and human services).

Moreover, Stake mentions four defining characteristics of qualitative research which are valid for qualitative case studies as well: they are “holistic”, “empirical”, “interpretive” and “emphatic”.

Holistic refers to the interrelationship between the phenomenon and its contexts which is similar to the inseparable link Yin ascribes to while defining the case. Empirical means that researchers base the study on their observations in the field. Interpretive means that researchers rest upon their intuition and see research basically as a researcher subject interaction, which is compatible with the constructivist epistemology. Lastly, emphatic means that researchers reflect the vicarious experiences of the subjects in an emic perspective.

Merriam (1998) defined characteristic of case study research as the delimitation of the case. Her definition is in line with Smith’s (1978) view of case as a ‘bounded system’ and Stake’s view of case as an ‘integrated system’. She sees “the case as a thing, a single entity, a unit around which there are boundaries” (p. 27). Then, case can be a person, a program, a group, a specific policy and so on, which represent a lot more comprehensive list than Yin’s and Stake’s. In Merriam’s view which is influenced by Miles and Huberman’s (1994) understanding of “the case as a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded context”, as long as researchers are able to specify the phenomenon of interest and draw its boundaries or “fence in” what they are going to inquire, they can name it a case.

The case of Hawthorn studies

Professor George Elton Mayo (1880-1949) has secured fame as the leader in a series of experiments which became one of the great turning-points in management thinking. At the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, he discovered that job satisfaction increased through employee participation in decisions rather than through short-term incentives.

Mayo's importance to management lies in the fact that he established evidence on the value of a management approach and style which, although not necessarily an alternative to F. W. Taylor's scientific management, presented facts which Taylorites could not ignore.

Conducted at Western Electric's large plant outside Chicago, the Hawthorne studies are best known for the Hawthorne effect, namely that those who perceive themselves as members of the experimental or otherwise favored group tend to outperform their controls, often regardless of the intervention. Secondary sources describing the Hawthorne effect tell us that in an experiment conducted at Western Electric's Hawthorne Works factory in the 1920s, psychologists examined the working conditions of plant workers doing repetitive tasks. The major finding quoted is that irrespective of what one does to improve or degrade conditions, productivity goes up. The usual example given is variation in light. If light conditions improved, so did productivity; however, when light conditions were downgraded, productivity again went up.

In Hawthorne experiment the phenomenon ‘that job satisfaction increased through employee participation in decisions rather than through short-term incentives’ or in other words ‘those who perceive themselves as members of the experimental or otherwise favored group tend to outperform their controls, often regardless of the intervention’ was studied within the context of the Western Electric’s plant. The description of the plant and the work performed was kept to the bare minimum so that the context can be related to the phenomenon.

Case of Pin factory - Adam Smith

Division of labour is an economic concept which states that dividing the production process into different stages enables workers to focus on specific tasks. If workers can concentrate on one small aspect of production, this increases overall efficiency – so long as there are sufficient volume and quantity produced.

This concept was popularised by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). Famously, he used the example of a pin factory. Adam Smith noted how the efficiency of production was vastly increased because workers were split up and given different roles in the making of a pin.

The phenomenon studied by Adam Smith was Division of labour which states that if each worker focuses on a few specific tasks he becomes specialist and overall production efficiency increases. The phenomenon was studied within the context of the manufacturing process of pins in a factory.

The Case of ‘Fortune at the bottom of pyramid’

Almost 20 years ago, C.K. Prahalad, and his colleague Stuart L. Hart debuted a simple but radical idea. They argued that the 4 billion poor people around the world represented a vibrant consumer market, that this market could best be tapped with for-profit models, and that the poor themselves had to be partners in the process. Before that it was believed that uplifting the poor was the responsibility of government and nonprofits, or was simply too risky for business organization pursuing for profit models. Most businesses lacked the insight and cost structures to reach poor consumers. There was a persistent belief that needs such as shelter and nutrition had to be addressed before the poor could understand — and pay for — aspirational products and technology. Through a string of case studies Prahalad showed that there lies fortune at the bottom of economic pyramid which can be tapped profitably with suitable products and services. Within the context of Pure.it table top water purifier and smokeless charcoal burners, Prahalad studied the possibility of tapping BOP market with for profit business models.

Case by Baxter on decisions made by nursing students

For instance, a study of the decision making of nursing students conducted by Baxter sought to determine the types of decisions made by nursing students and the factors that influenced the decision making. A case study was chosen because the case was the decision making of nursing students, but the case could not be considered without the context, the School of Nursing, and more specifically the clinical and classroom settings. It was in these settings that the decision-making skills were developed and utilized. It would have been impossible for this author to have a true picture of nursing student decision making without considering the context within which it occurred.

Reference: Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf

Some recent examples of Case Study researches

In the following topics, the context and phenomenon are explicitly identified. The case should focus on the study of phenomenon after describing the case context.

1. How the introduction of Yulu Bikes in Bangalore helped in creating a sustainable environment by decongestion of traffic and improving air quality while adhering to the vision and mission of the firm

2. How team building took place during the process of spinning off an academic research project as an independent for-profit entity

3. How extending the conservation-of-resources and broaden-and-build theories it can be shown that individuals use a positive effect to conserve, replenish, broaden, and build their inner resources and well-being. While leaders in an organization invest in enhancing employees’ well-being, they need to be cognizant of the several factors at interplay. An overall positive environment, autonomy, safety and meaningfulness contribute holistically towards the well-being of employees.

4. A case can demonstrate positive organizational scholarship in the context of a small firm and how can it be implemented?

5. How a lean warehouse management can be achieved by implementing value stream mapping.

Increasing the accuracy and rigour of a case study

Supported by the positivist view of case studies, different au­thors proposed research strategies that increase the accuracy of case studies with regard to their internal validity, construct validity, external validity and reliability. The following text has been drawn from Yazan (2015).

By studying the findings of various authors Gibbert and Ruigrok (2010) suggested following rules;

Internal validity: The internal validity can be established by developing an argument that has a consistent causal construction (Siggelkow, 2007; Yin, 2009). This can be achieved by formulating a clear research framework (with em­phasis on relationships between variables and outcomes), an­alyzing patterns and triangulation of data – using dif­ferent sources of information for the same data (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007; Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008; Yin, 2009).

Construct validity: For the construct validity of a case study it is im­portant to establish a clear chain of evidence to allow the read­ers of the case to reconstruct how the researcher departed from the initial research questions and reached the final conclusions (Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008; Yin, 2005). For this purpose, “thick description” (Geertz, 1973) and triangulation (Stake, 2000; Yin, 2009) are indicated procedures (Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008). This carefulness in developing constructs, mea­sures and testable theoretical propositions allows the induc­tive case study to be aligned with normal-science streams of re­search (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007).

External validity: The generalizability or external validity of the findings is NOT the purpose of a case study. It is well known that neither a study of a single case nor even of a few cases allow statistical generalizations – that is, exten­sion of the study findings to a population of other cases. According to the study done by Gibbert and Ruigrok (2010), some authors try to improve the ex­ternal validity of their cases with multiple cases, using a nested approach, presenting a rationale for case selection, and provid­ing details on case study context.

Reliability: It refers to the criterion that research must be such that if other researchers choose to follow the same re­search procedures, they can achieve the same insights as the initial researcher (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). For this to be possi­ble, it is important for the researcher to ensure transparency of the research procedures in order to allow replication by other re­searchers (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). In this sense, well-de­scribed research procedures and protocols are essential parts (Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008). It is therefore important to stress the need for detail and depth in the fieldwork (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007).”

Generating theory through a single case study

(Source: Mariotto, F. L., Zanni, P. P.,and Marcondes de Moraes, G. H. S., (2014). What is the use of a Single-Case Study in Management Research?, RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, , Vol 54, No. 4, jul-ago, pages 358-369, ISSN 0034-7590, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020140402)

The construction of theory with the help of case stud­ies is a research strategy that involves the analysis of one or more cases to create theoretical constructs and/or proposi­tions from the empirical evidence provided by the case (Ei­senhardt, 1989; Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007; Platt, 2007; Yin, 2005). Therefore, the process of theory building through this methodological approach is inductive, i.e., the theory emerg­es as patterns of relationships between constructs are recog­nized in the case and between cases (Eisenhardt, 1989; Eisen­hardt & Graebner, 2007, Lee, Collier, & Cullen, 2007; Siggelkow, 2007; Yin, 2009).

In management research, the interest in the case study as a method for generating and testing theory has recently gained strength, (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007; Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008; Lee et al., 2007; Platt, 2007; Siggelkow, 2007). However, there is still a clear predominance of surveys and sta­tistical methods as research tools in this area (Cassel, Symon, Buehring, & Johnson, 2006; Gibbert, Ruigrok, & Wicki, 2008; Lee et al., 2007; Platt, 2007).

Building theory from case studies is a research strategy proposed by Glaser and Strauss (1967), Eisenhardt (1989), and Yin (2009), among others. Eisenhardt and Graebner (2007) ar­gue that it is one of the best (if not the best) bridges between rich qualitative evidence and mainstream deductive research. In addition, they contend that since it is a theory-building approach that is deeply embedded in rich empirical data, building theory from cases is likely to produce theory that is accurate, interesting, and testable. Thus it is a natural complement to mainstream deductive re­search (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007, pp. 25-26).

In addition, theory building from cases constitutes what Yin (2009) calls “analytic generalization”, which he presents as a substitute for the “statistical generalization” of the hypo­thetical-deductive method. The latter is not possible with a sin­gle case or few cases. Instead of generalizing findings from a large sample of cases to a population of cases represented by the sample – as in the hypothetical-deductive method – the re­searcher generalizes findings in the single case or few cases to theory. For many users of case studies, this concept of general­ization redeems the case study from the accusation of not being usable for generalization.

However, with the single case, theory building is a more limited possibility. In addition, nearly all recom­mendations for doing high quality research in theory building from cases (e.g. Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007; Yin, 2009) re­quire the use of multiple cases.

Theory linked cases
South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases accept only such cases that are linked with theory. Each case published in the journal should help a faculty to cover either a theoretical concept or a framework or a model with the help of the case.

Review Articles
Review Articles provide a comprehensive summary of research on a certain topic, and a perspective on the state of the field and where it is heading. The journal will be interested in review articles related to case method only. Review articles are often written by leaders in a particular discipline after invitation from the editors of a journal. Reviews are often widely read (for example, by researchers looking for a full introduction to a field) and highly cited. Reviews commonly cite approximately 100 primary research articles. SAJBMC invites review articles from the experts in respective domains. Before writing a review article please share the proposal with the editorial team.

Preferred Case Focus
Cases from all management disciplines are welcome, including but not limited to the following:

· Innovation, entrepreneurship, sustainability and CSR, human resources management, organization development, transnational cultural impacts, knowledge management, technology management;

· Strategy, management interventions, organization experiences and practices, management science, management decision making, globalization, international trade;

· Operations management, logistics, supply chain management, service operations management, marketing management, information technology;

· Social enterprise management, NGOs and NPOs, public sector management, civic administration, public-private partnership.

· Ethics, corporate governance, ecology, financial inclusion, business excellence, business process reengineering, Accounting, and finance

Cases written with primary data or single firm cases written with secondary data, must obtain the consent to publish from the target organization and are written using 5000 words or less – tables and figures included.

References

Cassel, C., Symon, G., Buehring, A., & Johnson. (2006). The role and status of qualitative methods in management research: an empirical account. Management Decision, 44(2), 290-303.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory building from cases: op­portunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 25-32.

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of culture. New York: Basic Books.

Gibbert, M. & Ruigrok, W. (2010). The “what” and “how” of case study rigor: three strategies based on published work. Organization Research Methods, 13(4), 710-737.

Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W., & Wicki, B. (2008). What passes as a rigorous case study? Strategic GManagement Journal, 29(3), 1465-1474.

Lee, B., Collier, P., & Cullen, J. (2007). Reflections on the use of case studies in the accounting, management and organizational disciplines. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: an Internation­al Journal, 2(3), 169-178.

Mariotto, F. L., Zanni, P. P.,and Marcondes de Moraes, G. H. S., (2014). What is the use of a Single-Case Study in Management Research?, RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, , Vol 54, No. 4, jul-ago, pages 358-369, ISSN 0034-7590, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020140402

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Platt, J. (2007). Case study. In: Outhwaite, W. & Turner, S. The sage hand­book of social science methodology. London: Sage.

Poulis K, Poulis E, & Plakoyinnaki E (2013). The role of context in case study selection: an international business perspective. International Business Review, 22 304-314.

Siggelkow, N. (2007). Persuasion with case studies. Academy of Man­agement Journal, 50(1), 20-24.

Smith, L. (1978). An evolving logic of participant observation, educational ethnography, and other case studies. In L. Shulman (Ed.), Review of researching education (pp. 316-

377). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.

Stake, R. (2000). The case study method in social inquiry. In Norman K. Denzin & Yvonne S. Lincoln. The American tradition in qualitative re­search. Vol II. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Stake, R.E. (2005). Qualitative studies. In: Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, pp. 443-466.

Yazan, B. (2015). Three Approaches to Case Study Methods in Education: Yin, Merriam, and Stake. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), 134-152. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol20/iss2/12Yin, R. K. (1984) Case study research: design and methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Yin, R. K. (2001). Estudo de caso: planejamento e métodos, 2ª. ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman

Yin, R. K. (2002). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case studies: design and methods, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Editor
A K Dey Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Founding Editor
(Late) G D Sardana Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Editorial Board
Anjan Ghosh Associate Professor of Strategy and Entrepreneurship; Director - Silk Road Case Center, Narxoz Business School, Narxoz University
Hanna Lehtimaki University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Paresha Sinha Associate Professor, The University of Waikato, New Zealand
Tojo Thatchenkery Professor and Director of the M.S. in Organization Development & Knowledge Management program, Schar School of Policy & Government, George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA
Assistant Editor
Shreya Mishra Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Editorial Team
Esa Hiltunen Senior Lecturer in Innovation Management, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Nafisa Yeasmin Doctor of Social Sciences, Project Manager, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi
Veenu Sharma Assistant Professor, Retail and Marketing, Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Advisory Editorial Board: Patron
Harivansh Chaturvedi Director, Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Advisory Editorial Members
Alur Sivakumar Professor of Marketing, VIT Business School, Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
Anna-Maija Lämsä Professor of Human Resource Management, School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä University, Finland
Anupam Varma Dean (Academics), Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Arunaditya Sahay Professor and Dean, Centre for Research Studies, Birla Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India
Deepak Khazanchi Professor of Information Systems & Quantitative Analysis, College of Information Science & Technology, University of Nebraska at Omaha
H. M. Jha "Bidyarthi" Professor and Head Department of Business Admin. and Research, Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering Shegaon, Maharashtra, India
Indranil Bose Dean, School of Business, University of Bolton, RAK, UAE
Isni Andriana Lecturer of Economic Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
Jashim Uddin Ahmed Professor and Chairman of the Department of Management, School of Business and Economics, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
John Varlaro Professor, College of Business, Johnson & Wales University, USA
John Walsh Associate Dean of International College Krirk University, Bangkok, Thailand
Ken Nishikawa Professor, Konan University, Kobe, Japan
M M Sulphey Professor, Department of Human Resources, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Matthew Mullarkey Director, DBA Program, Muma College of Business, University of South Florida, USA
Mustaghis-ur-Rehman Senior Professor, Management Studies Department, Bahria University, Karachi, Pakistan
P A P Samantha Kumara Professor of Marketing, Faculty of Management and Finance, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Paivi Eriksson Professor of Management, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Raminta Pucetaite Associate Professor, Vilnius University Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Lithuania
Ravi Kumar Jain Director and Professor of Finance, Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad, India
Sandeep Puri Professor of Marketing, Asian Institute of Management, Manila, Philippines
Sarath W. S. B. Dasanayaka Faculty of Business, Department of Management & Technology, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Sonia Mehrotra Professor – Centre of Excellence for Case Development & Case Studies, Welingkar Institute of Management, Mumbai, India
Tahir Ali Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Venkat Yanamandram Associate Professor of Marketing, Faculty of Business and Law, University of Wollongong, Australia
Virginia Bodolica Professor (The Said T. Khoury Chair of Leadership Studies), American University of Sharjah, UAE
Wolfgang Amann Affiliate Professor (Strategy and Business Policy), HEC Paris, Oatar
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  • South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases is hosted on SAGE Peer Review; a web based online submission and peer review system. Please read the Manuscript Submission guidelines below, and then visit https://peerreview.sagepub.com/bmc to login and submit your article online.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases (SAJBMC) will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research data

    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript

    4.1 Formatting
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Supplemental material
    4.4 Reference style
    4.5 English language editing services

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 Information required for completing your submission
    5.2 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases (SAJBMC), please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases (SAJBMC) invites stimulating original, unpublished case study research, based on primary and/or secondary data, or significant experience of learning on various facets of management. Pure and applied research does not fall under the domain of SAJBMC. Fictitious cases are not welcome. Cases with disguised name of the firm or the actors in it are not welcome.

    SAJBMC aims at international relevance and encourages authors from all over the world, but a certain preference will be given to papers that focus on socio-economic context of South Asian region.

    Preferred Case Focus
    Cases from all management disciplines are welcome, including but not limited to the following:

    • Innovation, entrepreneurship, sustainability and CSR, human resources management, organization development, transnational cultural impacts, knowledge management, technology management;
    • Strategy, management interventions, organization experiences and practices, management science, management decision making, globalization, international trade;
    • Operations management, logistics, supply chain management, service operations management, marketing management, information technology;
    • Social enterprise management, NGOs and NPOs, public sector management, civic administration, public-private partnership.
    • Ethics, corporate governance, ecology, financial inclusion, business excellence, business process reengineering, Accounting, and finance

    Journal prefers only case study researches.

    Cases written with primary data or single firm cases written with secondary data, must obtain the consent to publish from the target organisation and are written using 5000 words or less – tables and figures included.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article
    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Papers received will first undergo editorial scrutiny to judge suitability. The shortlisted papers will go through a double-blind peer-review process. The journal uses TURNITIN software to check the originality of submissions.

    Differentiated Review Process
    SAJBMC distinguishes itself in the 'structure' and 'approach' of its unique publishing review process.

    Revolving Door Desk Review:
    We ensure that the initial desk review is completed in five to six weeks’ time. The outcome of this stage decides if the case can be taken forward for peer review. Quick turnaround time helps the author to revise and resubmit or, for cases, the author may consider some other journal. Authors are encouraged to remind the editor if Desk Review is taking more than three weeks.

    Transparent Peer Review:
    It is a blind review by two is generally completed in three to four months. Cases are accepted only if both reviewers recommend 'Acceptance'. Any dispute is resolved by the editor. The SAJBMC reviews are done with an approach of 'Review and Improve' and not 'Review and Reject'.

    We work with those see a potential to convert them into good research publications. We provide detailed tips for to authors who are in their early stage of career.

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support. 

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.3.1 Writing assistance
    Individuals who provided assistance, e.g. a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway

    2.6 Research data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the SAGE Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism
    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases (SAJBMC) and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Authors must provide a report of Plagiarism checked with preferably Turnitin software. The acceptable level of similarity index for the text of an article checked without references, tables, figures and exhibits is 10% or less. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
    For each case, the upper limit of similarity index is currently fixed at 15%.

    3.1.2 Prior publication
    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned the author to the society. For more visit the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information on Open Access publishing options at SAGE please visit SAGE Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. Word templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    • Each case must be submitted with following sections of extended abstract:
       - Abstract (100 words)
       - Research questions/Objective (50 words)
       - Links to theory (50 words)
       - Phenomenon studied (50 words)
       - Case context (50 words)
       - Findings (80 words)
       - Discussions (100 words) 
    • Keywords (5–7 words).
    • All submissions should only be in MS word document. 
    • Follow APA style. Take extra care in the reference section. Check if all citations are appearing in the reference section and vice- versa.
    • Remove all notes. Convert them into citation and referencing. For a case written with the help of secondary data, endnotes may be retained.
    • Ensure the proper style of citation and referencing for materials downloaded from the website. 
    • All figures and tables should be in black and white. Colour displays are not acceptable.
    • Please remember that in a black and white print, reproduction of half-tone figures is of poor quality. 
    • As much as possible avoid copy paste of tables and graphs. Redraw afresh. Copy pasted figures or tables are not accepted.
    • Each table and each figure should have table and figure numbers and titles. Separate numbering for tables and figures. Each table and figure must have a source.
    • The entire document, including tables, figures, and graphs, must be in Times New Roman 12 point font size with 1.5 line spacing. 
    • Exercise utmost care to avoid spelling and grammatical errors. Proofread the copy carefully. Take help of experts
    • The full document, including abstract, tables, figures, graphs and references, should not exceed 5000 words.
    • For the benefit of the international audience, all financial figures expressed in any currency should have USD equivalent as well. Units of million and billion should be used.
    • Annexures (diagrams, images, figures, tables, graphs): Please follow instructions as detailed in the section ‘The Guidelines’.
    • Endnotes: These should be consecutively numbered and presented at the end of the article.
    • Bio briefs: Please furnish brief particulars of each author in not more than 25 words.
    • No need to submit a teaching note. Please note the journal of publishes only research case studies.
    • Endnotes should be numbered serially, the numbers embedded in the manuscript. The notes should be presented at the end of the article. Notes must contain more than a mere reference. 
    • Use British rather than American spellings. Use the ‘z’ variant of British spelling. 
    • It is the responsibility of authors to ensure that their articles are written in an acceptable international standard of English. 
    • Submissions should use non-sexist and non-racist language. 
    • When referring to social actors ‘woman/women’ should be used, not ‘female/females’, unless the context requires otherwise. Similarly, ‘man/men’ should be used, not ‘male/males’. ‘Female’ and ‘male’ should be used when referring to the construction of social identity. 
    • Use single quotes throughout. Double quotes should only be used within single quotes. Spellings of words in quotations should not be changed. Quotations of 45 words or more should be separated from the text and indented with a line space above and below. 
    • While referring to periods/decades, use ‘nineteenth century’/‘1980s’. Spell out numbers from one to nine, 10 and above to remain in figures. However, for exact measurements use only figures (3 km, 9 percent not %). Use thousands and millions (e.g., not lakhs and crores). 
    • Use of italics and diacriticals should be minimized but used consistently. Avoid excessive use of italics for emphasis, but use italics for book titles, journal names, and foreign words.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines 

    • Figures, including maps, graphs and drawings, should not be larger than page size. They should be numbered and arranged as per their references in the text. All photographs and scanned images should have a resolution of minimum 300 dpi and 1,500 pixels and their format should be TIFF or JPEG. 
    • Due permissions should be taken for copyright protected photographs/images. Even for photographs/images available in the public domain, it should be clearly ascertained whether or not their reproduction requires permission for purposes of publishing (which is a profit-making endeavour).
    • All photographs/scanned images should be provided separately in a folder along with the main article.

    Please Note: All figures and tables should be cited in the text and should have the source (a specific URL, a reference or, if it is author’s own work, ‘The Author’) mentioned irrespective of whether or not they require permissions

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    4.4 Reference style

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases adheres to the APA reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases is hosted on SAGE Peer Review; a web based online submission and peer review system. Please read the Manuscript Submission guidelines below, and then visit https://peerreview.sagepub.com/bmc to login and submit your article online.

    Authors will be provided with a copyright form once the contribution is accepted for publication. The submission will be considered as final only after the filled-in and signed copyright form is received. In case there are two or more authors, the corresponding author needs to sign the copyright form.

    5.1 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.2 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases editorial office as follows:

    ak.dey@bimtech.ac.in

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