Paramedicine is a paramedic-led, international, peer-reviewed open access journal which aims to advance and transform the discipline of paramedicine through high quality evidence. It inspires robust discussion, encourages innovative thinking, informs leadership, and enables research translation.This journal is published on behalf of the Australasian College of Paramedicine and will launch in January 2023. Submissions are now open, see the Submission Guidelines for further information.
Why publish in Paramedicine?
- Commitment to high quality rigorous standards
- Embraces diverse methodology
- Indexed widely, ensuring high visibility and discoverability
- Q1 'Best Quartile' (SJR 'EMS')
- High-quality and efficient peer review
- Free open access publishing
- Fast online publication
Open access article processing charge (APC) information
There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal. The Australasian College of Paramedicine sponsors the journal by covering the article processing charge (APC) and making articles open access, thus there is no charge to authors for publishing their articles with the journal.
Submit your manuscript today at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/paramedicine to be published in 2023.
Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.
Please direct any queries to firstname.lastname@example.org
To advance and transform the discipline of paramedicine through high-quality research dissemination and discourse.
To deliver excellence in paramedicine through an international research forum that inspires robust discussion, enables research translation, encourages innovative thinking and informs leadership.
Aims and scope
Paramedicine is the official international journal of the Australasian College of Paramedicine. It aims to create a connected discourse that spans paradigms, methodologies and methods for the advancement of the Paramedicine profession, the public it serves, the systems it connects to, and the people tasked with enacting that service.
Paramedicine publishes research from any country investigating any area of paramedicine, including but not limited to clinical care, operations, systems, leadership, education, aeromedical & retrieval practice, tactical paramedicine, and community paramedicine.
Paramedicine embraces diverse research methodology and paradigms and encourages qualitative research.
Paramedicine accepts primary quantitative and qualitative research, mixed-methods research, structured reviews including systematic and scoping designs, research methods summaries, perspectives, commentaries and case reports. Editorials are through invitation only.
|Associate Professor Paul Simpson PhD, MScM(ClinEpi), BEd, BHSc(Prehosp), GCClinEd, GCPaedEmerg, ICP,||Western Sydney University, Australia|
|Dr Alan Batt FHEA PGCME PhD||Monash University, Canada|
|Dr Kathryn Eastwood PhD, MEmergHlth(MICA), GCHigherEd, BParaStud, BNurs, BSc, CHIA, FACPara, ASM||Monash University, Australia|
|Assistant Professor Walter Tavares PhD||University of Toronto, Canada|
|Professor Julia Williams PhD||University of Hertfordshire, UK|
- Open Access
- What do we publish?
2.1 Aims & scope
2.2 Article types
2.3 Writing your paper
- Editorial policies
3.1 Peer review policy
3.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
3.6 Research ethics and patient consent
3.7 Clinical trials
3.8 Reporting guidelines
3.9 Research Data
- Publishing policies
4.1 Publication ethics
4.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
- Preparing your manuscript
5.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
5.3 Identifiable information
5.4 Supplementary material
5.5 Reference style
5.6 English language editing services
- Submitting your manuscript
6.2 Information required for completing your submission
- On acceptance and publication
7.1 SAGE Production
7.2 Online publication
7.3 Promoting your article
- Further information
8.1 Appealing the publication decision
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/paramedicine to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.
SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Paramedicine will be reviewed.
There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal.
As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.
Paramedicine may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.
If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal
Paramedicine is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal. The Australasian College of Paramedicine sponsors the journal by covering the article processing charge (APC) and making articles open access, thus there is no charge to authors for publishing their articles with the journal.
Before submitting your manuscript to Paramedicine, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.
To advance and transform the discipline of paramedicine through dissemination and discourse of high-quality research.
To deliver excellence in paramedicine through an international research forum that inspires robust discussion, enables research translation, encourages innovative thinking and informs leadership.
Paramedicine is the official journal of the Australasian College of Paramedicine. It is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed journal that provides an international forum for the dissemination and discussion of paramedicine research. The Journal’s purpose is to advance and transform the discipline of paramedicine through high quality evidence, and inspire robust discussion, encourage innovative thinking, inform leadership, and enable research translation. Paramedicine publishes research from any country investigating any area of paramedicine, including but not limited to clinical care, models of practice, operations, patient safety and clinical quality, leadership, education, aeromedical & retrieval practice, tactical paramedicine, and community paramedicine. Paramedicine embraces diverse research methodology and paradigms, and encourages qualitative research. Paramedicine accepts primary quantitative and qualitative research, mixed-methods research, structured reviews including systematic and scoping designs, research methods summaries, and perspectives. Editorials are through invitation only.
(Word counts are guides. Submissions exceeding the guide word limit must contain an argument for exceeding the count in the submission letter to the Editor)
- Original quantitative research (4,500 words)
- Original qualitative research (6,000 words)
- Original mixed methods research (6,000 words)
- Systematic reviews (5,000 words)
- Scoping reviews (5,000 words)
- Other reviews using recognised methodology (5,000)
- For a typology of literature review methods please consult Grant, M.J. and Booth, A. (2009), A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26: 91-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
- Perspectives (2,500 words)
- Research methods papers (2,500)
- Editorials (usually by invitation only) (1,500 words)
The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice on how to get published, plus links to further resources.
Please consider the following guidance carefully when preparing your manuscript:
- Paramedicine strongly recommends authors include reference to a conceptual or theoretical framework and articulate the paradigm within which the research is positioned
- Paramedicine is an international journal, so please consider an international readership when you are preparing your manuscript
- Paramedicine is committed to research translation. Please ensure you address translation of your research in the discussion section of your manuscript
- Paramedicine requires adherence where relevant to a recognised reporting standard such as those published by the ‘EQUATOR’ network https://www.equator-network.org/ . Acknowledgement of adherence and the guideline used must be stated in methods section of the manuscript. Please refer to Section 3.8 for more details.
- Paramedicine only accepts systematic reviews that have had a protocol registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (‘PROSPERO’). Scoping reviews are required to have had a protocol registered prospectively on a publicly available platform such as the Open Science Framework https://osf.io/ , or similar. Protocol registration details and/or links must be included in the methods section of the manuscript.
- Review manuscripts must have searches that are current to within 6 months of the date of submission to Paramedicine.
2.3.1 Making your article discoverable
For information and guidance on how to make your article discoverable, visit our Gateway on: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
Paramedicine operates a strictly anonymised peer review process in which the reviewer’s name is withheld from the author and, the author’s name from the reviewer. The reviewer may at their own discretion opt to reveal their name to the author in their review but our standard policy practice is for both identities to remain concealed.
SAGE does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication.
Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:
- The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors
- The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper
- The author has recommended the reviewer
- The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution)
Paramedicine is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for Paramedicine can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the Journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:
- Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data
- Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
- Approved the version to be published
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.
Per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.
3.3.1 Third party submissions
Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:
- Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
- Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
- Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.
Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.
3.3.2 Writing assistance
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
Paramedicine requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
It is the policy of Paramedicine to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.
Paramedicine conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.
EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the SAGE Research Data policy pages.
As a condition of publication authors are required to:
- Share your research data in a relevant public data repository
- Include a data availability statement. This should:
- Indicate if data is available and shared
- In certain cases, indicate if research data is available but not shared, and why. If you cannot share your data and this is a requirement of publication, consult the journal editorial office.
- Indicate if there is an absence of data
- Cite data in your research
- Peer reviewers may be asked to peer review the research data prior to publication.
- Peer reviewers may be asked to assess compliance with the research data policy
- Peer reviewers may be asked to assess research data files
If you need to anonymize your research data for peer review, please refer to our Research Data Sharing FAQs for guidance.
SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Paramedicine and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
4.1.2 Prior publication
If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
4.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information, please visit the SAGE Author Gateway
The preferred format for your manuscript is Word.
- Submissions should generally not exceed the word limit guides (provided in Section 2.2) although in some cases longer versions may be accepted. For submissions longer than the stated limits, an argument for exceeding the word limit must be made in the cover letter addressed to the Editor-In-Chief.
- All submissions must include a cover letter addressed to the Editor-In-Chief stating how the article meets the aims and scope of Paramedicine and why it would be of interest to the journal’s international readership. The cover must include a conflict of interest statement and confirmation that the submission is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
- A separate title page must be submitted with the title, authors and affiliations, and corresponding author name and email and post address.
- The main document containing the manuscript should commence with an abstract no longer than 300 words. Abstracts must be structured in the following format: Introduction, Aim/s, Methods, Results, Conclusion.
- Below the abstract should be no more than 8 keywords Of these, 3-5 key words must come from the ScholarOne keyword list. A further 3 keywords not from the ScholarOne list may be provided specific to the nature of the manuscript.
- Manuscript text should be formatted as double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman type. Line numbers should be added and be continuous from page to page.
- No identifying information should be included in the manuscript. Names of institutions or locations that might identify should be removed before submission and replaced with ‘XXXXXXXXXXX’. Word documents should be deidentified before submission by changing the properties settings.
- Organize the manuscript by using primary, secondary, and tertiary headings, rather than numbered headings. Primary headings should be capitalised and bolded. Secondary headings should be in sentence case and bolded. Tertiary headings should be in sentence case and italicised.
- An ethics statement must be included as the last section in the methods section.
- An acknowledgement statement (if relevant), followed by an author contribution statement, conflict of interest statement and funding statement should be submitted on a separate page to avoid potential identification.
- A maximum of 5 tables and 5 figures are permitted within the manuscript. Additional tables and/or figures can be included as Supplementary appendices. Supplemental appendices should be submitted on separate pages.
- Figures/charts and tables created in MS Word should be included in the main text rather than at the end of the document.
- Figures and other files created outside Word (i.e. Excel, PowerPoint, JPG, TIFF, and EPS) should be submitted separately. Please add a placeholder note in the running text (i.e. “[insert Figure 1.]")
- Tables may be single spaced and in smaller fonts, if necessary, for formatting. Legends/titles should be positioned above for tables, and below for figures. Legends must contain enough detail to enable the table or figure to stand alone. All abbreviations used in tables and figures must be explained in smaller font beneath.
- References in the manuscript should follow the Vancouver guidelines; see here for SAGE Vancouver guidelines. There is no limit the number of references.
- Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere.
- For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Illustrations, pictures, and graphs, should be supplied in the highest quality and in an electronic format that helps us to publish your article in the best way possible. Please follow the guidelines below to enable us to prepare your artwork for the printed issue as well as the online version.
- Format: TIFF, JPEG: Common format for pictures (containing no text or graphs). EPS: Preferred format for graphs and line art (retains quality when enlarging/zooming in)
- Resolution: Rasterized based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) require a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi.
- Dimension: Images cannot be scaled up after origination.
- Fonts: The lettering used in the artwork should not vary too much in size and type (usually sans serif font as a default).
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.
For more guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines
Where a journal uses double-anonymised peer review, authors are required to submit:
- A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymized. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
- A separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers.
See https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/Manuscript-preparation-for-double-anonymized-journal for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.
This Journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files Please consult with the Editor before submitting if you are considering including digital data in your submission.
Paramedicine adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Please review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
Paramedicine is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/paramedicine to login and submit your article online.
IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).
Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway
Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.
Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.
One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Paramedicine editorial office as follows:
Associate Professor Paul Simpson
Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.
If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at email@example.com