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Psychological Testing
A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation



May 2005 | 368 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Psychological Testing offers a fresh and innovative approach to students and faculty in the fields of testing, measurement, psychometrics, research design and related areas of study. Author Theresa Kline guides readers through the process of designing and evaluating a test, paying careful attention to ensure that the test meets the highest professional standards. The author uses simple, clear examples throughout and fully details the required statistical analyses. Topics include—but are not limited to—design of item stems and responses; sampling strategies; classical and modern test theory; IRT program examples; reliability of tests and raters; validation using content, criterion-related, and factor analytic approaches; test and item bias; and professional and ethical issues in testing.

 
Preface
 
The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement
Measurement in the Physical Sciences  
Measurement in the Social Sciences  
Historical Highlights of Measurement  
Statistics Background  
The First Step: Identifying the Construct  
Links Between Constructs  
Construct Cleanliness  
Single versus Multiple Constructs  
Summary and Next Step  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Designing and Writing Items
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item  
Literature Search  
Subject Matter Experts  
How Many Items?  
Attitudinal Items: Early Work in Item Generation  
Assessing Behaviors  
Pilot Testing  
Summary and Next Step  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Designing and Scoring Responses
Open-Ended Responses  
Closed-Ended Questions  
Example 1: Proportional Differences for a Single Variable  
Example 2: Proportional Differences for Two Variables  
Dichotomous Responses  
Multiple Choice Tests  
Continuous Responses  
Ipsative versus Normative Scales  
Difference and Change Scores  
Summary and Next Step  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening
Probability Sampling  
Non-Probability Sampling  
Sample Sizes  
Missing Data  
Preparing to Analyze Your Data  
Summary and Next Step  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Classical Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Classical Test Theory  
Theory of True and Error Scores: Description and Assumptions  
Ramifications and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Assumptions  
Item Analysis within CTT: Approaches, Statistical Analyses, and Interpretation  
Descriptive Statistics  
Summary  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Modern Test Theory  
Models  
One-Parameter Logistic Model  
Two-Parameter Logistic Model  
Three-Parameter Logistic Model  
Multiple-response IRT Models  
Parameter Estimation  
Scoring Respondents  
Model Fit  
Assumptions  
Ramifications of the Assumptions of Modern Test Theory  
Practical Advantages of Modern Test Theory  
Limitations of Modern Test Theory  
Computer Programs  
Practical Considerations  
Summary  
Next Steps  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items
Test-retest Reliability  
Alternative Forms Reliability  
Measures of Internal Consistency  
Setting Confidence Intervals  
Reliability of a Composite  
Difference Scores - A Reliability Concern  
Practical Questions  
Summary and Next Steps  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Reliability of Raters
Inter-Rater Reliability Indices  
Reliability Generalization  
Modern Test Theory Approaches to Reliability  
Summary and Next Steps  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion
Methods  
Asking the Test Takers  
Asking the Subject Matter Experts  
Assessments Using Correlation and Regression: Criterion-Related Studies  
Classification Approaches to Test Score Validation  
Group Differences and Test Bias  
Extending the Inferences of Criterion-Related Validity Studies  
Summary  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Assessing Validity Via Item Internal Structure
Principal Components Analysis  
Common Factor Analysis  
Common Factor Analysis using Analysis of Covariance  
Structures  
Some Other Issues in Factor Analysis  
Practical Issues  
Concluding Comments on Internal Structure and Validity  
Threats to the Validity of Scores  
Multitrait-Multimethod Assessment  
Closing Comments on Test Score Validity  
Summary  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing
Professional Standards and Guidelines  
Ethical Procedures and Protocols  
Test Administration  
Integrity Testing  
Computerized Testing  
Coaching, Testwiseness, and Re-takes  
Testing Legislation  
Test Item Bias and Adverse Impact  
Translation Issues  
Electronic Presentation and Capture  
Summary  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Brief Reviews of Some Selected Tests and Concluding Comments
Information about Existing Tests  
Some Intelligence Tests  
Academic Achievement Tests  
Structured Personality Tests  
Career Interest/Guidance Instruments  
Chapter Summary  
A Quick Book Review  
Concluding Comments  
Problems and Exercises  
 
Appendices
 
References
 
Index

Professor Kline’s attempts to de-mystify complex measurement concepts are beautifully simplified and illustrated in her countless illustrations of practical and relevant problems for the mathematically-challenged student. This book is also a must-have for those who simply do not have the desire for the theoretical jargon used in similar textbooks, but are interested in the important conceptual and practical aspects of measurement as they apply in their disciplines.

Arturo Olivarez, Jr.
Texas Tech University

Kline’s Psychological Testing provides a well-written treatment of the critical issues in designing and evaluating psychometric instruments. This book will be very useful to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers.

Richard Block
Montana State University

"[This book] fills an important niche...It is ideally suited to professional psychologists wishing to construct or evaluate a psychological test.  Dr. Kline's sensible advice will serve them well."

Stuart J. Mckelvie
Professor of Psychology at Bishop's University
Canadian Psychology

Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation by Theresa J. B. Kline is an easy-to-read, upper-level textbook covering topics related not only to basic psychological testing practices but also to methodological research components. The author is very effective at presenting relevant issues, facts, descriptions, examples, and statistics in a logical and concise manner. She describes and critiques several commonly used tests and the subtleties involved in test administration, as well as exploring the ethical issues surrounding the process. Readers with varying degrees of knowledge in the field will come away with a clear picture of the wide-ranging effects of psychological testing. The result is a conceptually stratified look at numerous complex measurement theories and psychometric concepts. ... Whereas some textbooks dealing with testing address statistics by giving it a chapter, Kline opts to integrate in-depth statistical analysis wherever appropriate to the topic being presented. This method is very effective, as it gives the reader the complete picture in a single snapshot. ... Psychological Testing by Theresa J. B. Kline is an accessible, easy-to-read book that effectively communicates the current concepts, trends, and controversies in the field of psychological testing. Readers are provided with an in-depth analysis of psychometrics in a format that will keep their attention and that they will be able to relate to the significance of psychological testing across numerous areas such as schools, businesses, clinical settings, military, or government.

Todd L. Chmielewski
PsycCRITIQUES December 7, 2005 Vol. 50, No. 49, Article 12

Psychological Testing  is an accessible, easy-to-read book that effectively communicates the current concepts, trends, and controversies in the field of psychological testing. Readers are provided with an in-depth analysis of psychometrics in a format that will keep their attention and that they will be able to relate to the significance of psychological testing across numerous areas such as schools, businesses, clinical settings, military, or government.
-- PsycCRITIQUES

PsycCRITIQUES
American Psychological Association

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ISBN: 9781412905442
£112.00

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