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Psychological Testing

Psychological Testing
A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation

May 2005 | 368 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Psychological Testing offers a fresh and innovative approach to students and faculty in the fields of testing, measurement, psychometrics, research design and related areas of study. Author Theresa Kline guides readers through the process of designing and evaluating a test, paying careful attention to ensure that the test meets the highest professional standards. The author uses simple, clear examples throughout and fully details the required statistical analyses. Topics include—but are not limited to—design of item stems and responses; sampling strategies; classical and modern test theory; IRT program examples; reliability of tests and raters; validation using content, criterion-related, and factor analytic approaches; test and item bias; and professional and ethical issues in testing.

The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement
Measurement in the Physical Sciences

Measurement in the Social Sciences

Historical Highlights of Measurement

Statistics Background

The First Step: Identifying the Construct

Links Between Constructs

Construct Cleanliness

Single versus Multiple Constructs

Summary and Next Step

Problems and Exercises

Designing and Writing Items
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item

Literature Search

Subject Matter Experts

How Many Items?

Attitudinal Items: Early Work in Item Generation

Assessing Behaviors

Pilot Testing

Summary and Next Step

Problems and Exercises

Designing and Scoring Responses
Open-Ended Responses

Closed-Ended Questions

Example 1: Proportional Differences for a Single Variable

Example 2: Proportional Differences for Two Variables

Dichotomous Responses

Multiple Choice Tests

Continuous Responses

Ipsative versus Normative Scales

Difference and Change Scores

Summary and Next Step

Problems and Exercises

Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening
Probability Sampling

Non-Probability Sampling

Sample Sizes

Missing Data

Preparing to Analyze Your Data

Summary and Next Step

Problems and Exercises

Classical Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Classical Test Theory

Theory of True and Error Scores: Description and Assumptions

Ramifications and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Assumptions

Item Analysis within CTT: Approaches, Statistical Analyses, and Interpretation

Descriptive Statistics


Problems and Exercises

Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Modern Test Theory


One-Parameter Logistic Model

Two-Parameter Logistic Model

Three-Parameter Logistic Model

Multiple-response IRT Models

Parameter Estimation

Scoring Respondents

Model Fit


Ramifications of the Assumptions of Modern Test Theory

Practical Advantages of Modern Test Theory

Limitations of Modern Test Theory

Computer Programs

Practical Considerations


Next Steps

Problems and Exercises

Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items
Test-retest Reliability

Alternative Forms Reliability

Measures of Internal Consistency

Setting Confidence Intervals

Reliability of a Composite

Difference Scores - A Reliability Concern

Practical Questions

Summary and Next Steps

Problems and Exercises

Reliability of Raters
Inter-Rater Reliability Indices

Reliability Generalization

Modern Test Theory Approaches to Reliability

Summary and Next Steps

Problems and Exercises

Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion

Asking the Test Takers

Asking the Subject Matter Experts

Assessments Using Correlation and Regression: Criterion-Related Studies

Classification Approaches to Test Score Validation

Group Differences and Test Bias

Extending the Inferences of Criterion-Related Validity Studies


Problems and Exercises

Assessing Validity Via Item Internal Structure
Principal Components Analysis

Common Factor Analysis

Common Factor Analysis using Analysis of Covariance


Some Other Issues in Factor Analysis

Practical Issues

Concluding Comments on Internal Structure and Validity

Threats to the Validity of Scores

Multitrait-Multimethod Assessment

Closing Comments on Test Score Validity


Problems and Exercises

Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing
Professional Standards and Guidelines

Ethical Procedures and Protocols

Test Administration

Integrity Testing

Computerized Testing

Coaching, Testwiseness, and Re-takes

Testing Legislation

Test Item Bias and Adverse Impact

Translation Issues

Electronic Presentation and Capture


Problems and Exercises

Brief Reviews of Some Selected Tests and Concluding Comments
Information about Existing Tests

Some Intelligence Tests

Academic Achievement Tests

Structured Personality Tests

Career Interest/Guidance Instruments

Chapter Summary

A Quick Book Review

Concluding Comments

Problems and Exercises


For instructors

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ISBN: 9781412905442

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