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Psychological Testing
A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation



May 2005 | 368 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Psychological Testing offers a fresh and innovative approach to students and faculty in the fields of testing, measurement, psychometrics, research design and related areas of study. Author Theresa Kline guides readers through the process of designing and evaluating a test, paying careful attention to ensure that the test meets the highest professional standards. The author uses simple, clear examples throughout and fully details the required statistical analyses. Topics include—but are not limited to—design of item stems and responses; sampling strategies; classical and modern test theory; IRT program examples; reliability of tests and raters; validation using content, criterion-related, and factor analytic approaches; test and item bias; and professional and ethical issues in testing.

 
Preface
 
The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement
Measurement in the Physical Sciences

 
Measurement in the Social Sciences

 
Historical Highlights of Measurement

 
Statistics Background

 
The First Step: Identifying the Construct

 
Links Between Constructs

 
Construct Cleanliness

 
Single versus Multiple Constructs

 
Summary and Next Step

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Designing and Writing Items
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item
Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item

 
Literature Search

 
Subject Matter Experts

 
How Many Items?

 
Attitudinal Items: Early Work in Item Generation

 
Assessing Behaviors

 
Pilot Testing

 
Summary and Next Step

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Designing and Scoring Responses
Open-Ended Responses

 
Closed-Ended Questions

 
Example 1: Proportional Differences for a Single Variable

 
Example 2: Proportional Differences for Two Variables

 
Dichotomous Responses

 
Multiple Choice Tests

 
Continuous Responses

 
Ipsative versus Normative Scales

 
Difference and Change Scores

 
Summary and Next Step

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening
Probability Sampling

 
Non-Probability Sampling

 
Sample Sizes

 
Missing Data

 
Preparing to Analyze Your Data

 
Summary and Next Step

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Classical Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Classical Test Theory

 
Theory of True and Error Scores: Description and Assumptions

 
Ramifications and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Assumptions

 
Item Analysis within CTT: Approaches, Statistical Analyses, and Interpretation

 
Descriptive Statistics

 
Summary

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses
Modern Test Theory

 
Models

 
One-Parameter Logistic Model

 
Two-Parameter Logistic Model

 
Three-Parameter Logistic Model

 
Multiple-response IRT Models

 
Parameter Estimation

 
Scoring Respondents

 
Model Fit

 
Assumptions

 
Ramifications of the Assumptions of Modern Test Theory

 
Practical Advantages of Modern Test Theory

 
Limitations of Modern Test Theory

 
Computer Programs

 
Practical Considerations

 
Summary

 
Next Steps

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items
Test-retest Reliability

 
Alternative Forms Reliability

 
Measures of Internal Consistency

 
Setting Confidence Intervals

 
Reliability of a Composite

 
Difference Scores - A Reliability Concern

 
Practical Questions

 
Summary and Next Steps

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Reliability of Raters
Inter-Rater Reliability Indices

 
Reliability Generalization

 
Modern Test Theory Approaches to Reliability

 
Summary and Next Steps

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion
Methods

 
Asking the Test Takers

 
Asking the Subject Matter Experts

 
Assessments Using Correlation and Regression: Criterion-Related Studies

 
Classification Approaches to Test Score Validation

 
Group Differences and Test Bias

 
Extending the Inferences of Criterion-Related Validity Studies

 
Summary

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Assessing Validity Via Item Internal Structure
Principal Components Analysis

 
Common Factor Analysis

 
Common Factor Analysis using Analysis of Covariance

 
Structures

 
Some Other Issues in Factor Analysis

 
Practical Issues

 
Concluding Comments on Internal Structure and Validity

 
Threats to the Validity of Scores

 
Multitrait-Multimethod Assessment

 
Closing Comments on Test Score Validity

 
Summary

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing
Professional Standards and Guidelines

 
Ethical Procedures and Protocols

 
Test Administration

 
Integrity Testing

 
Computerized Testing

 
Coaching, Testwiseness, and Re-takes

 
Testing Legislation

 
Test Item Bias and Adverse Impact

 
Translation Issues

 
Electronic Presentation and Capture

 
Summary

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Brief Reviews of Some Selected Tests and Concluding Comments
Information about Existing Tests

 
Some Intelligence Tests

 
Academic Achievement Tests

 
Structured Personality Tests

 
Career Interest/Guidance Instruments

 
Chapter Summary

 
A Quick Book Review

 
Concluding Comments

 
Problems and Exercises

 
 
Appendices
 
References
 
Index

Professor Kline’s attempts to de-mystify complex measurement concepts are beautifully simplified and illustrated in her countless illustrations of practical and relevant problems for the mathematically-challenged student. This book is also a must-have for those who simply do not have the desire for the theoretical jargon used in similar textbooks, but are interested in the important conceptual and practical aspects of measurement as they apply in their disciplines.

Arturo Olivarez, Jr.
Texas Tech University

Kline’s Psychological Testing provides a well-written treatment of the critical issues in designing and evaluating psychometric instruments. This book will be very useful to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers.

Richard Block
Montana State University

"[This book] fills an important niche...It is ideally suited to professional psychologists wishing to construct or evaluate a psychological test.  Dr. Kline's sensible advice will serve them well."

Stuart J. Mckelvie
Professor of Psychology at Bishop's University
Canadian Psychology

Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation by Theresa J. B. Kline is an easy-to-read, upper-level textbook covering topics related not only to basic psychological testing practices but also to methodological research components. The author is very effective at presenting relevant issues, facts, descriptions, examples, and statistics in a logical and concise manner. She describes and critiques several commonly used tests and the subtleties involved in test administration, as well as exploring the ethical issues surrounding the process. Readers with varying degrees of knowledge in the field will come away with a clear picture of the wide-ranging effects of psychological testing. The result is a conceptually stratified look at numerous complex measurement theories and psychometric concepts. ... Whereas some textbooks dealing with testing address statistics by giving it a chapter, Kline opts to integrate in-depth statistical analysis wherever appropriate to the topic being presented. This method is very effective, as it gives the reader the complete picture in a single snapshot. ... Psychological Testing by Theresa J. B. Kline is an accessible, easy-to-read book that effectively communicates the current concepts, trends, and controversies in the field of psychological testing. Readers are provided with an in-depth analysis of psychometrics in a format that will keep their attention and that they will be able to relate to the significance of psychological testing across numerous areas such as schools, businesses, clinical settings, military, or government.

Todd L. Chmielewski
PsycCRITIQUES December 7, 2005 Vol. 50, No. 49, Article 12

Psychological Testing  is an accessible, easy-to-read book that effectively communicates the current concepts, trends, and controversies in the field of psychological testing. Readers are provided with an in-depth analysis of psychometrics in a format that will keep their attention and that they will be able to relate to the significance of psychological testing across numerous areas such as schools, businesses, clinical settings, military, or government.
-- PsycCRITIQUES

PsycCRITIQUES
American Psychological Association

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ISBN: 9781412905442
£115.00

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