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Qualitative Data Analysis
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Qualitative Data Analysis
Practical Strategies



February 2013 | 472 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Lecturers/instructors only - request a free digital inspection copy here 

Written by an experienced researcher in the field of qualitative methods, this dynamic new book provides a definitive introduction to analysing qualitative data.

It is a clear, accessible and practical guide to each stage of the process, including:

- Designing and managing qualitative data for analysis

- Working with data through interpretive, comparative, pattern and relational analyses

- Developing explanatory theory and coherent conclusions, based on qualitative data.

The book pairs theoretical discussion with practical advice using a host of examples from diverse projects across the social sciences. It describes data analysis strategies in actionable steps and helpfully links to the use of computer software where relevant.

This is an exciting new addition to the literature on qualitative data analysis and a must-read for anyone who has collected, or is preparing to collect, their own data.

 
PART ONE: PREPARING THE WAY: LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS FOR ANALYSIS
 
Foundations for Thinking and Working Qualitatively
Thinking Qualitatively

 
Thinking Methods (and methodology)

 
Working Qualitatively

 
Working Qualitatively - Using Software

 
Foundations for Working Qualitatively

 
Working Qualitatively: Implications for Analysis

 
Writing About Foundations

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
Designing for Analysis
Design-giving Form to Ideas

 
Focusing the Study

 
Designing for Data That Can Be Analysed

 
Planning for Quality and Credibility of Conclusions

 
Putting It All Together

 
Writing About Design

 
Exercises

 
Further reading

 
 
Managing and Preparing Data for Analysis
Before Data Collection

 
Keeping Organised, Available and Usable Data Records

 
Recording and Preparing Data for Analysis

 
The Importance of Context

 
Recording Sample Details for Analysis

 
Checks and Balances for Data

 
Managing Relationships in the Research Team

 
Writing About Data Management

 
Exercises

 
 
PART TWO: WORKING WITH DATA: A PATHWAY INTO ANALYSIS
 
Read, Reflect and Connect: Initial Explorations of Data
Read, and Read Again

 
Write As You Read

 
Purposeful Play-preliminary Explorations of Each Data Source

 
Explore the Storylines

 
Exploring Context

 
Identify Relevant Categories and Concepts

 
Involving Participants in Early Analysis

 
Re-focus, Ready For the Next Phase

 
Writing About Preliminary Analysis

 
Exercises

 
Further reading

 
 
Codes and Coding: Principles and Practice
Using Codes to Work With Data

 
Practical Tools for Coding

 
Methods Decisions in Coding

 
Issues of Validity and Reliability in Coding

 
Managing the Process of Coding

 
A Final Reminder - Codes and Coding in Context

 
Writing About Coding Processes

 
Exercise

 
Further reading

 
 
Naming, Organizing and Refining Codes
What's in a Name?

 
Naming Broad Topic Areas

 
Naming Codes to Capture Substance and Meaning

 
Automating Coding

 
Developing a Coding System

 
Reviewing and Refining Codes and the Coding Structure

 
Writing About Codes

 
Exercise - Generating Codes

 
Further Reading

 
 
Alternative Approaches to Breaking Open and Connecting Data
Building on Cases

 
Themes as an Alternative to Codes?

 
Focus on Interaction - Working With Focus Group Data

 
Focus on Stories and Accounts - Identifying Structure, Interpreting Meaning

 
Focus on Discourse - The Intersubjective Space

 
The Value of Case-based Approaches

 
Writing About Your Use of Case-based, Thematic and Narrative Methods

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
PART THREE: DESCRIBE, COMPARE AND RELATE: MOVING ON FROM CODES AND THEMES
 
Describing, Evolving and Theorizing Concepts
Describing Categories and Concepts (or themes) as a Step in Analysis

 
Evolving Concepts with Analytic, Meta- or Pattern Codes

 
Theorising Concepts

 
Writing About Describing and Analysing Concepts

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
Comparative Analyses as a Means of Furthering Analysis
Why Compare?

 
The Comparative Process

 
Managing Data to Make Subgroup, Contextual or Case Comparisons

 
Comparing Concepts or Categories Across Groups or Situations

 
Comparing Cases

 
Interpreting Comparative Analyses

 
Writing About Comparisons

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
Relational Analyses
Coding and Connecting Working Together

 
Investigating Relational Patterns

 
Cross-case Analyses

 
Identifying Patterns of Association Between Sets of Related Phenomena, Using Coded Data

 
Relating Data to a Theoretical Model

 
Investigating Relationships Between Specific Categories and Concepts

 
Writing About Exploring and Testing Relationships in Data

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
PART FOUR: BRINGING IT TOGETHER - MOVING TOWARD CLIMAX AND CLOSURE
 
If… Then… Is It Because? Developing Explanatory Models and Theories
Analytic Progression

 
Explanatory Theory as a Goal of Research

 
Foundations for Explanatory Theory

 
Logic-based Questioning - Finding the Major Premise

 
Puzzle-solving with "Conjectures and Refutations"

 
Case-based Strategies

 
Theoretical Development and Integration in Grounded Theory

 
Visual Tools for Theory-Building

 
Writing About Your Developing Theory

 
Further Reading

 
 
Developing Coherent Understanding
Coherent Understanding?

 
Coherence Through Description

 
Theoretical Coherence

 
Coherence Through Display

 
A Collection of Tips and Tricks for Bringing it Together

 
Writing About Developing Coherence

 
Further Reading

 
 
Defending and Extending: Issues of Quality and Significance
The Issue of Quality

 
Generalisation / Transferability

 
Theoretical Extension

 
Audiences and Representation

 
A Final Reflection

 
Writing About Quality and Significance

 
Exercises

 
Further Reading

 
 
After-Words

Pat Bazeley has achieved the almost impossible task of preparing a text that is essential for both new and experienced qualitative researchers, and one that will challenge and enlighten both audiences. This remarkably comprehensive book will most certainly move qualitative inquiry forward.
Janice Morse
College Of Nursing, University of Utah


This is one of the most insightful books ever written on qualitative data analysis, and certainly the most detailed and comprehensive. Pat Bazeley has done a magnificent job of both covering recent developments, and providing a user-friendly presentation with numerous examples. This will be an indispensable resource for qualitative researchers.
Joseph Maxwell
Graduate School of Education, George Mason University


Pat Bazeley has produced what is sure to become a core text for those working with qualitative data. She covers the whole process from first ideas through to explanatory models and theories without restricting her coverage to just one software package. This excellent book is a thorough and entertaining resource that will be of use to both the novice and the more experienced researcher.
Richard Freeman
Doctoral School, Institute of Education, University of London


 

'Pat Bazeley's book advances the procedures of qualitative data coding and analysis. Her work provides a highly accessible framework for both new and seasoned researchers to consider in the analysis of interview, survey, photo and video data collected in qualitative studies. This text would be a great addition to a graduate level course in qualitative research. SAGE once again demonstrates it is a reliable source of academic and discipline-specific texts, as evidenced by Pat Bazeley’s newest work in the field'

Susan Zoll
Wheelock College, Boston, Massachusetts USA

This is an amazing contribution to qualitative data analysis, it is a very thorough and scholarly book. I use it as the course text for my teaching, and as I dip in and out of your book I continue to be impressed. I actually think it stands in its own right as the best, most comprehensive book on qualitative data analysis.

Delwyn Goodrick
Faculty Member of The Evaluator's Institute

Excellent resource to support dissertation students.

Sasha Pleasance
Teacher Training, South Devon College
March 26, 2015

I didn't teach the class...It was given to somebody else

Professor Roberto Bello
Marketing , University of Lethbridge
September 23, 2014

An excellent text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students offering a comprehensive guide to analysis of data

Ms Carole Smith
Department of Behavioural Sciences, Huddersfield University
August 12, 2014

Essential for Master students preparing their Master thesis. They use it on their own and selective. Their feedbacks are very good as they consider this even valuable for their time after the Master.

Mr Wolfgang Kotowski
Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon Univ.
July 10, 2014

This is a very comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of qualitative research with very helpful tables/figures and examples. The layout is conventional but this makes it easy to follow: Part 1 covers the preliminaries in terms of theory and planning; Part 2 covers initial data analysis; Part 3 higher level analysis; Part 4 synthesis and dissemination. It is a little too advanced for undergrads but excellent for Masters and beyond. I found it easy to read and a helpful standard textbook on qualitative research.

Ms Vanessa Abrahamson
Department of Allied Health Profession, Canterbury Christ Church University
May 5, 2014

Excellent book on the topic highly recommended

Mr Sean Flanagan
Computing, Runshaw College
March 20, 2014

Because of the width of the topics a little bit confusing, on the other hand it is very in-depth, so it is interesting specially in parts. And I think it would be better not to seperate data gathering and data analysis. Not ideal for my purposes as a textbook.

Professor Dieter Kulke
Fakultät Angewandte Sozialwissenschaften, Fachhochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt
February 28, 2014

Sample Materials & Chapters

Ch 1. Preparing the Way: Laying the Foundations for Analysis


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