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Standard Setting

Standard Setting
A Guide to Establishing and Evaluating Performance Standards on Tests

First Edition

January 2007 | 368 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Standard Setting: A Guide to Establishing and Evaluating Performance Standards on Tests provides the only "go-to" reference on how to set standards on tests in education, licensure, and certification. It is comprehensive in scope, practical in nature, and definitive in terms of cataloguing the essential conceptual and procedural fundamentals of setting performance standards.

Key Features:

" Offers an overview of the importance of standard setting, current demands, legislation, formats, and licensure and certification contents

" Provides a detailed look at the distinctions between oft-confused concepts such as "content standards" and "performance standards"

" Gives a straightforward review of the common elements in setting performance standards

" Provides detailed inclusion of the various methods (Angoff, Item Mapping, Analystic Judgment, etc.)for setting performance standards

" Includes a full chapter devoted to the future issues and research in standard setting as well as a glossary of key terms and a full set of references to aid the reader's literature review

1. Contemporary Standard Setting: An Enduring Need
The Need to Make Decisions  
The Benefits of Standard Setting  
General Approaches to Standard Setting  
Current Contexts for Standard Setting  
2. What is Standard Setting?
Kinds of Standards  
Definitions of Standard Setting  
Policy Issues and Standard Setting  
Item Scoring Criteria and Total-Test Performance Standards  
3. Common Elements in Setting Preformance Standards
Choosing a Standard Setting Method  
Performance Level Labels  
Performance Level Descriptions  
Key Conceptualizations  
Selecting and Training Participants  
Evaluating Standard Setting  
Providing Feedback to Participants  
Professional Guidelines for Standard Setting  
Evaluating Standard Setting  
4. The Nedelsky Method
Procedures for the Nedelsky Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
5. The Ebel Method
Procedures for the Ebel Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
6. The Angoff Method and Angoff Variations
Procedures for the Angoff Method  
Procedures for Angoff Variations  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
7. The Direct Consensus Method
Procedures for the Direct Consensus Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
8. The Contrasting Groups and Borderline Group Methods
Procedures for the Contrasting Groups Method  
An Example Using the Contrasting Groups Method  
The Borderline Group Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
9. The Body of Work and Other Holistic Methods
The Judgmental Policy Capturing Method  
The Dominant Profile Method  
The Analytic Judgment Method  
Summary Analysis of Three Holistic Methods  
Overview of the Body of Work Method  
Procedures for the Body of Work Method  
An Application the Body of Work Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
10. The Bookmark Method
Overview of the Bookmark Method  
An Implementation of the Bookmark Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
11. The Item-Descriptor Matching Method
Procedures for the IDM Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
12. The Hofstee and Beuk Methods
The Hofstee Method  
Procedures for Implementing the Hofstee Method  
The Beuk Method  
Procedures for Implementing the Beuk Method  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
13. Scheduling Standard Setting Activities
Scheduling Standard Setting for Educational Assessments  
Scheduling Standard Setting for Credentialing Programs  
Conclusions and Recommendations  
14. Vertically-Moderated Standard Setting
The Interrelated Challenges  
A Brief History of Vertically-Moderated Standard Setting  
What Is Vertically-Moderated Standard Setting?  
Approaches to VMSS  
Applications of VMSS  
An Illustration of VMSS Procedures  
Alternative Procedures and Limitations  
15. Standard Setting on Alternate Assessments
The Unique Challenges of Alternate Assessment  
Necessary Conditions for Alternate Assessment Systems  
A Generalized Holistic (GH) Method  
Limitations and Alternative Procedures  
16. Special Topics and Next Steps
Methods of Adjusting Cut Scores  
Deciding How to Incorporate Uncertainty  
Generalizability of Standards  
Using Multiple Methods of Standard Setting  
Improving Participant Training  

A well-timed text, given the legislated requirement of performance standards in our K-12 educational system, as well as the continued need in the process of credentialing professionals.  This book would be useful to individuals retained to produce or coordinate standard-setting activites.


It is abundantly apparent that the authors know standard setting and themselves have implemented numerous standard-setting procedures using different methods for different types of assessment programs.... Although the book is very practical, someone who has a fair amount of knowledge in standard setting will not feel shortchanged. There is a richness in the discussions of the methods that engages the reader, such as the different modifications of a method and the situational challenge that warranted each modification. Also, when a specific implementation of a method is discussed in detail, the authors are very conscientious in discussing the impetus for the adaptations. The historical perspective presented for some of the methods is quite intriguing.

Journal of Educational Measurement

Recommended for student projects. Excellent for students preparing for greater depth in the topic and specific research projects.

Dr Nancy Sanders
College Of Education, Washington State University - Vancouver
March 15, 2011

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 2 - What Is Standard Setting?

Chapter 10 - The Bookmark Method

Chapter 16 - Special Topics and Next Steps

Chapter 3 - Evaluation Form (pdf)

Chapter 3 - Normative Information (xls)

Chapter 3 - Percentages (doc)

Chapter 3 - Reality Information (xls)

Chapter 4 - Nedelsky (xls)

Chapter 5 - Ebel (xls)

Chapter 6 - Angoff (xls)

Chapter 6 - Extended Angoff (xls)

Chapter 6 - yesno (xls)

Chapter 7 - Direct Consensus (xls)

Chapter 8 - Contrasting data (xls)

Chapter 8 - Contrasting data (sav)

Chapter 9 Bow agenda (pdf)

Chapter 9 - Bow Data 1 (xls)

Chapter 9 - Bow Data 2 (xls)

Chapter 9 - Bow Form (xls)

Chapter 9 - Bow samples (pdf)

Chapter 10 - Bookmarktraining, bookmark (PPS)

Chapter 10 - Bookmarktraining, bookmarkNTG (pdf)

Chapter 10 - Bookmarktraining, practice (pdf)

Chapter 10 - Bookmark (xls)

Chapter 11 - IDM Form (xls)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, agenda (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, angoff overview (PPS)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, bookmark (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, bookmark overview (pps)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, evaluation form (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, Holistic overview (pps)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, letters (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, Readiness form (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 1, Security agreement (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 2, Impact (xls)

Chapter 13 - Materials 2, Ordered Item Booklets (xls)

Chapter 13 - Materials 2, PLDs (pdf)

Chapter 13 - Materials 2, Round summaries (xls)

Chapter 13 - Cert scheduling (xls)

Chapter 13 - Ed schedule (xls)

Chapter 13 - Letters (pdf)

Chapter 14 - vmss, Agenda (pdf)

Chapter 14 - vmss, Articulation (pps)

Chapter 14 - vmss, Overall distribution scores_Round 2 (xls)

Chapter 15 - ghm, ghm (xls)

Chapter 15 - ghm, VastDSet (pps)

Chapter 3 - Feedback Form (pdf)

Chapter 3 - Raw Score Distribution (xls)

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ISBN: 9781412916837
ISBN: 9781412916820

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